Synonyms for syncytiotrophoblast or Related words with syncytiotrophoblast

cytotrophoblast              cytotrophoblasts              cytotrophoblastic              trophoblast              trophoblasts              decidua              decidual              extravillous              suprabasal              keratocytes              endothelia              melanoblast              trophectoderm              villi              podocytes              hematocytes              hcec              spermatogonia              deciduas              cholangiocyte              odontoblast              hepatoblasts              ssrbcs              hcecs              microvessels              cytoarchitecture              urothelium              bmec              pericytes              spongiotrophoblast              myoepithelial              mesenchyme              hepatoblast              angioblast              hemidesmosomes              vsmcs              ecfcs              endothecium              ncscs              hbec              melanoblasts              hypoblast              proplatelets              nspcs              erythroblasts              microvessel              amscs              notochordal              angioblasts              granulosa             

Examples of "syncytiotrophoblast"
An undifferentiated cytotrophoblastic stem cell will differentiate into a villous cytotrophoblast, which is what constitutes primary chorionic villi, and will eventually coalesce into villous syncytiotrophoblast. The formation of syncytiotrophoblast from cytotrophoblast is a terminal differentiation step of trophoblastic cells.
Naturally, it is produced in the human placenta by the syncytiotrophoblast.
The formation of all syncytiotrophoblast is from the fusion of two or more cytotrophoblasts via this fusion pathway. This pathway is important because the syncytiotrophoblast plays an important role in fetal-maternal gas exchange, nutrient exchange, and immunological and metabolic functions.
The syncytiotrophoblast secretes progesterone and leptin in addition to human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) and human placental lactogen (HPL); hCG prevents degeneration of the corpus luteum. Progesterone serves to maintain the integrity of the uterine lining and, until the syncytiotrophoblast is mature enough to secrete enough progesterone to support pregnancy (in the fourth month of embryonic development), it is aided by the corpus luteum graviditatis.
The placenta begins to develop upon implantation of the blastocyst into the maternal endometrium. The outer layer of the blastocyst becomes the trophoblast, which forms the outer layer of the placenta. This outer layer is divided into two further layers: the underlying cytotrophoblast layer and the overlying syncytiotrophoblast layer. The syncytiotrophoblast is a multinucleated continuous cell layer that covers the surface of the placenta. It forms as a result of differentiation and fusion of the underlying cytotrophoblast cells, a process that continues throughout placental development. The syncytiotrophoblast (otherwise known as syncytium), thereby contributes to the barrier function of the placenta.
Synyctin-1 mediated trophoblast fusion is essential for normal placental development. The placenta is composed on two cell layers: cytotrophoblast and syncytiotrophoblast layer. Cytotrophoblasts are continually dividing, non-differentiated cells and syncytiotrophoblasts are fully differentiated, non dividing, fused cells. Syncytin-1 expression on the surface of cytotrophoblasts and syncytiotrophoblasts mediate fusion. The syncytiotrophoblast layer is the necessary interface between the developing embryo and the maternal blood supply, allowing nutrient and waste exchange and blocking maternal immune cell invasion, preventing immune rejection of the foetus. Syncytiotrophoblasts are forced into senescence by fusion. Therefore, cytotrophoblast proliferation is necessary for growth and maintenance of the syncytiotrophoblast layer. Syncytin-1 expression in cytotrophoblasts promotes G1/S transition and proliferation thereby ensuring continual replenishment of the cytotrophoblast pool. The name syncytin derives from its involvement in the formation of syncytium, the multinucleated syncytiotrophoblast protoplasm. There is another endogenous retroviral envelope protein expressed in the placenta from a different ERV family: syncytin-2 (of HERV-FRD).
On approximately the seventh day of development, the trophoblast (cells that make up the outer part of the blastocoel) divides to form two separate layers: the cytotrophoblast (the inner layer) and the syncytiotrophoblast (the outer layer). Using enzymes, the syncytiotrophoblast penetrates the tissues of the mother, then it attaches to these tissues by burrowing with long projections, breaking maternal blood vessels. The chemical reason why this process occurs is currently unknown.
HFE is prominent in small intestinal absorptive cells, gastric epithelial cells, tissue macrophages, and blood monocytes and granulocytes, and the syncytiotrophoblast, an iron transport tissue in the placenta.
Polyembryomas, the most immature form of teratoma and very rare ovarian tumors, are histologically characterized by having several embryo-like bodies with structures resembling a germ disk, yolk sac, and amniotic sac. Syncytiotrophoblast giant cells also occur in polyembryomas.
The trophoblast is made up of an internal layer of cubical or prismatic cells, the cytotrophoblast or layer of Langhans, and an external layer of richly nucleated protoplasm devoid of cell boundaries, the syncytiotrophoblast.
At days 11 to 12, there is further delineation of the trophoblastic cells giving rise to a layer of loosely arranged cells that inserts between Heuser’s membrane and both syncytiotrophoblast and cytotrophoblast.
If the egg is fertilized and implantation occurs, the syncytiotrophoblast (derived from trophoblast) cells of the blastocyst secrete the hormone human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG, or a similar hormone in other species) by day 9 post-fertilization.
Pregnancy-specific beta-1-glycoprotein is a major product of the syncytiotrophoblast in the placenta, reaching concentrations of 100 to 290 mg/L at term in the serum of pregnant women.
Embryotroph is the embryonic nourishment in placental mammals. In order to explain in more depth what an embryotroph actually is, other words such as syncytiotrophoblast and "uterine milk" must be mentioned in that same context.
Cotte C, Easty GC, Neville AM, Monaghan P. 1980. Preparation of highly purified cytotrophoblast from human placenta with subsequent modulation to form syncytiotrophoblast in monolayer cultures. In Vitro. 16(8):639-46.
The syncytiotrophoblast lacks proliferative capacity and instead is maintained by fusion of underlying cytotrophoblast cells. This fusion is assisted by syncytin, a protein that was integrated into mammalian genomes from an endogenous retrovirus.
The cytotrophoblast (or layer of Langhans) is the inner layer of the trophoblast. It is interior to the syncytiotrophoblast and external to the wall of the blastocyst in a developing embryo.
One way in which it accomplish this task is by suppressing the expression of immunity-related genes HLA-A and HLA-B, which are classically known to be expressed by all nucleated cells. These genes normally express the MHC-I ligand that acts as a major binding mechanism for T-cells. By decreasing the translation of these gene products, the syncytiotrophoblast reduces the chances of an attack by the maternal immune system mediated by T-cells. Contrastingly, the syncytiotrophoblast does express HLA-G, a ligand for an NK cell inhibitory receptor, which protects the villi against NK cell-mediated death.
After ovulation, the endometrial lining becomes transformed into a secretory lining in preparation of accepting the embryo. It becomes thickened, with its secretory glands becoming elongated, and is increasingly vascular. This lining of the uterine cavity (or womb) is now known as the decidua, and it produces a great number of large decidual cells in its increased interglandular tissue. The trophoblast then differentiates into an inner layer, the cytotrophoblast, and an outer layer, the syncytiotrophoblast. The cytotrophoblast contains cuboidal epithelial cells and is the source of dividing cells, and the syncytiotrophoblast is a syncytial layer without cell boundaries.
Trophoblasts are specialized cells of the placenta that play an important role in embryo implantation and interaction with the decidualised maternal uterus. The core of placental villi contain mesenchymal cells and placental blood vessels that are directly connected to the fetal circulation via the umbilical cord. This core is surrounded by two layers of trophoblast; a single layer of mononuclear cytotrophoblast that fuse together to form the overlying multinucleated syncytiotrophoblast layer that covers the entire surface of the placenta. It is this syncytiotrophoblast that is in direct contact with the maternal blood that reaches the placental surface, and thus facilitates the exchange of nutrients, wastes and gases between the maternal and fetal systems.