Synonyms for theism or Related words with theism
Examples of "theism"
Tillich argues that the God of theological
is at the root of much revolt against
and religious faith in the modern period. Tillich states, sympathetically, that the God of theological
In modern philosophy, classical
in which God is characterized as the "absolutely metaphysically ultimate being", in contrast to other conceptions such as Pantheism, Panentheism, Polytheism and Process
is a variant of nontheism that proposes that the division of
vs. atheism is obsolete, that God belongs to a stage of human development now past. Within nontheism, post-
can be contrasted with antitheism.
In short, open
says that since God and humans are free, God's knowledge is dynamic and God's providence flexible. While several versions of traditional
picture God's knowledge of the future as a singular, fixed trajectory, open
sees it as a plurality of branching possibilities, with some possibilities becoming settled as time moves forward. Thus, the future as well as God's knowledge of it is "open" (hence "open"
). Other versions of classical
hold that God fully determines the future, entailing that there is no free choice (the "future" is closed). Yet other versions of classical
hold that even though there is freedom of choice, God's omniscience necessitates God foreknowing what free choices are made (God's "foreknowledge" is closed). Open theists hold that these versions of classical
are out of sync with:
In the philosophy of religion, skeptical
is not a broad skepticism toward human knowledge of God, but is instead putatively presented as a response to philosophical propositions, such as those focused on drawing "all things considered" inductive conclusions about God's motives from perceived circumstances. Additionally, skeptical
is not a position used to defend all forms of
, though it is most often presented in the defense of orthodox Christian
. Moreover, skeptical
is not supported by all theists and some who support its skeptical positions are not theists.
is the philosophical view that encompasses both
and agnosticism. For
, an agnostic theist believes that the proposition "at least one deity exists" is true, but, per agnosticism, believes that the existence of gods is unknown or inherently unknowable. The agnostic theist may also or alternatively be agnostic regarding the properties of the god(s) they believe in.
Hennell published in 1839 "Christian
", an essay on religious sentiment after the end of a belief in miraculous revelation. A second edition of the "Inquiry" appeared in 1841; it was republished with "Christian
" in one volume, 1870.
At the New York Public Library in May 2007, Hitchens debated Al Sharpton on the issue of
, giving rise to a memorable exchange about Mormonism in particular.
Atheism is commonly understood as rejection of
in the broadest sense of
, i.e. the rejection of belief in a god or gods. The claim that the existence of any deity is unknown or unknowable is agnosticism.
and naturalism as live options fixed by our background beliefs,
provides a better explanation of consciousness than naturalism, and thus receives some confirmation from the existence of consciousness.
Antitheism (sometimes anti-
) is the opposition to
. The term has had a range of applications. In secular contexts, it typically refers to direct opposition to organized religion or to the belief in any deity.
Referring to the implications of Classical
that follow from this argument, Craig writes:
has parallels with the 18th century philosophical view called Deism.
Porter is an admirer of theologian Greg Boyd, and identifies with the teachings of open
Millard Erickson belittles such precursors to open
as “virtually unknown or unnoticed.”
which they may consider no more justified than
or requiring an equal conviction.
"Lucretius or Paul: Materialism and
Tested by the Nature and the Needs of Man" (1875),
Some Arminians, such as professor and theologian Robert Picirilli, reject the doctrine of open
as a "deformed Arminianism". Joseph Dongell stated that "open
actually moves beyond classical Arminianism towards process theology." There are also some Arminians, like Roger Olson, who believe Open
to be an alternative view that a Christian can have. The majority Arminian view accepts classical
– the belief that God's power, knowledge, and presence have no external limitations, that is, outside of his divine nature. Most Arminians reconcile human free will with God's sovereignty and foreknowledge by holding three points:
Anaxagoras (500–430 B.C.) approached a personalistic
by his doctrine that the divine Nous or Mind governs all motion.
Tillich also further elaborated the thesis of the God above the God of
in his Systematic Theology.
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