Synonyms for thelarche or Related words with thelarche

pubarche              adrenarche              gonadarche              pubertal              menarche              prepubertal              masculinization              feminization              prepubescent              oligomenorrhea              postpubertal              subfertility              perimenopause              luteinization              virilization              menstruating              anencephalic              macrosomia              stillbirth              multifetal              micropenis              hyperandrogenemia              nulliparity              hypospadias              puberty              postmenopause              anovulation              ohss              azoospermic              andropause              gestations              preadolescent              gynecomastia              panhypopituitarism              nulliparous              ovulating              macromastia              premenopausal              anovulatory              puerperium              androgenization              amenorrhoea              nonpregnant              multiparity              virilism              multigravida              cervixes              oligomenorrhoea              parous              iugr             



Examples of "thelarche"
Thelarche is the onset of secondary (postnatal) breast development, usually occurring at the beginning of puberty in girls. Its etymology is from Greek θηλή [tʰelḗ], “nipple” and ἀρχή [arkʰḗ], “beginning, onset”. Thelarche is usually noticed as a firm, tender lump directly under the centre of the nipple (papilla and areola). Thelarche is also referred to as a "breast bud", or more formally as Tanner stage 2 breast development (Tanner stage 1 being the entirely undeveloped prepubertal state). Thelarche may occur on one side first, or both sides simultaneously.
Since 1979, pediatric endocrinologists in Puerto Rico recognized an increase in number of patients with premature thelarche. The presence of phthalates were measured in the blood of 41 girls experiencing early onset breast development and matched set of controls. The average age of girls with premature thelarche was 31 months. They found high phthalate levels in the girls suffering from premature thelarche compared to the controls. Not all cases of premature thelarche in the study sample contained elevated levels of phthalate esters and there was concern whether artificial contamination from vinyl lab equipment and tubing invalidated the results, hence weakening the link between exposure and causation.
Premature thelarche is distinct from neonatal breast hyperplasia (see also witch's milk), which is common in the first few months of life and is due to acute exposure to high levels of sex hormones like estrogen during pregnancy. Premature thelarche is also distinct from precocious puberty, which generally occurs later in childhood and also includes development of other pubertal characteristics.
When thelarche occurs at an unusually early age, it may be the first manifestation of precocious puberty. If no other changes of puberty or sex hormone effects occur, it is referred to as isolated premature thelarche, and generally requires no treatment.
When menarche has failed to occur for more than 3 years after thelarche, or beyond 16 years of age, the delay is referred to as primary amenorrhea.
Premature thelarche is a rare medical condition that is characterized by isolated breast development (thelarche being the onset of breast development) at a very early age with no other signs of sexual maturation. It generally occurs within the first 1 to 4 years of life, with a peak incidence of 2 years of age, and tends to resolve within 1 to 2 years without treatment. The condition never advances beyond Tanner stage III breast development.
Although breast development can occur as a part of normal male puberty, it is termed gynecomastia, and the term "thelarche" is not used with reference to male breast development.
Puberty is a complex developmental process defined as the transition from childhood to adolescence and adult reproductive function. The first sign of puberty is an acceleration of growth followed by the development of a palpable breast bud (thelarche). The median age of thelarche is 9.8 years. Although the sequence may be reversed, androgen dependent changes such as growth of axillary and pubic hair, body odor and acne (adrenarche) usually appears 2 years later. Onset of menstruation (menarche) is a late event (median 12.8 years), occurring after the peak of growth has passed.
In very rare instances, menarche may occur at an unusually early age, preceding thelarche and other signs of puberty. This is termed isolated premature menarche, but other causes of bleeding must be investigated and excluded. Growth is usually normal. Isolated premature menarche is rarely the first manifestation of precocious puberty.
The sequence of events of pubertal development can occasionally vary. For example, in about 15% of boys and girls, pubarche (the first pubic hairs) can precede, respectively, gonadarche and thelarche by a few months. Rarely, menarche can occur before other signs of puberty in a few girls. These variations deserve medical evaluation because they can occasionally signal a disease.
Rising levels of androgens can change the fatty acid composition of perspiration, resulting in a more "adult" body odor. This often precedes thelarche and pubarche by one or more years. Another androgen effect is increased secretion of oil (sebum) from the skin. This change increases the susceptibility to acne, a skin condition that is characteristic of puberty. Acne varies greatly in its severity.
Treatment with fennel ("Foeniculum vulgare") has been associated with premature thelarche in several case reports. Estradiol levels were found to be elevated by 15–20 times for the ages of the afflicted girls (5 months to 5 years). Also, fennel is known to contain anethole, an estrogenic compound.
The breasts are principally composed of adipose, glandular, and connective tissues. Because these tissues have hormone receptors, their sizes and volumes fluctuate according to the hormonal changes particular to thelarche (sprouting of breasts), menstruation (egg production), pregnancy (reproduction), lactation (feeding of offspring), and menopause (end of menstruation).
Precocious puberty occurs when children younger than 8 experience changes indicative of puberty, including development of breast buds (thelarche), pubic hair, and a growth spurt. Thelarche before 8 is considered abnormal. Though not all precocious puberty has a specific pathological cause, it may indicate a serious medical problem and is thoroughly evaluated. In most cases, the cause of precocious puberty cannot be identified. "Central precocious puberty" or "true precocious puberty" stems from early activation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-ovarian axis. It occurs in 1 in 5,000 to 1 in 10,000 people and can be caused by a lesion in the central nervous system or have no apparent cause. "Peripheral precocious puberty" or "GnRH independent precocious puberty" does not involve the hypothalamic-pituitary-ovarian axis, instead, it involves other sources of hormones. The causes of peripheral precocious puberty include adrenal or ovarian tumors, congenital adrenal hyperplasia, and exogenous hormone exposure.
The morphological structure of the human breast is identical in males and females until puberty. For pubescent girls in thelarche (the breast-development stage), the female sex hormones (principally estrogens) in conjunction with growth hormone promote the sprouting, growth, and development of the breasts. During this time, the mammary glands grow in size and volume and begin resting on the chest. These development stages of secondary sex characteristics (breasts, pubic hair, etc.) are illustrated in the five-stage Tanner Scale.
Thelarche is the first physical change of puberty in about 60 percent of girls, usually after 8 years of age. It is a result of rising levels of estradiol. It is typical for a woman's breasts to be unequal in size, particularly while the breasts are developing. Statistically it is slightly more common for the left breast to be the larger. In rare cases, the breasts may be significantly different in size, or one breast may fail to develop entirely.
Checking medical history and a physical examination of symptoms are used for an initial diagnosis. Patient history assessed includes age at thelarche, adrenarche, and menarche; patterns of menstruation; obesity; reproductive history; and the start and advancement of hyperandrogenism symptoms. Patterns of menstruation are examined since irregular patterns may appear with hirsutism. Family history is also assessed for occurrences of hyperandrogenism symptoms or obesity in other family members.
An individual with this condition is hormonally normal; that is, the person will enter puberty with development of secondary sexual characteristics including thelarche and adrenarche (pubic hair). The person's chromosome constellation will be 46,XX. At least one ovary is intact, if not both, and ovulation usually occurs. Typically, the vagina is shortened and intercourse may, in some cases, be difficult and painful. Medical examination supported by gynecologic ultrasonography demonstrates a complete or partial absence of the cervix, uterus, and vagina.
The chest (thoracic cavity) progressively slopes outwards from the thoracic inlet (atop the breastbone) and above to the lowest ribs that support the breasts. The inframammary fold, where the lower portion of the breast meets the chest, is an anatomic feature created by the adherence of the breast skin and the underlying connective tissues of the chest; the IMF is the lower-most extent of the anatomic breast. In the course of thelarche, some girls develop breasts the lower skin-envelope of which touches the chest below the IMF, and some girls do not; both breast anatomies are statistically normal morphologic variations of the size and shape of women's breasts.
During thelarche, the developing breasts are sometimes of unequal size, and usually the left breast is slightly larger. This condition of asymmetry is transitory and statistically normal in female physical and sexual development. Abnormal breast development is manifests itself either as overdevelopment (e.g., virginal breast hypertrophy, macromastia) or as underdevelopment (e.g., tuberous breast deformity, micromastia) in girls and women. In boys and men it is manifested as gynecomastia (woman's breasts), the consequence of a biochemical imbalance between the normal levels of estrogen and testosterone in the male body.