Synonyms for tnfr or Related words with tnfr


Examples of "tnfr"
Tumor necrosis factor receptor superfamily member 18 (TNFRSF18) also known as activation-inducible TNFR family receptor (AITR) or glucocorticoid-induced TNFR-related protein (GITR) is a protein that in humans is encoded by the "TNFRSF18" gene. GITR is currently of interest to immunologists as a co-stimulatory immune checkpoint molecule.
In addition to chimeric and humanized antibodies, there are other pharmaceutical purposes for the creation of chimeric constructs. Etanercept, for example, is a TNFα blocker created through the combination of a tumor necrosis factor receptor (TNFR) with the immunoglobulin G1 Fc segment. TNFR provides specificity for the drug target and the antibody Fc segment is believed to add stability and deliverability of the drug.
Dcr3 was identified in 1998 by the search of genes with homology to the TNFR gene superfamily in expressed sequence tag (EST) database.
Although, RIPK1 has been primarily studied in the context of TNFR signaling, RIPk1 is also activated in response to diverse stimuli.
GITR, short for Glucocorticoid-Induced TNFR family Related gene, prompts T cell expansion, including Treg expansion. The ligand for GITR is mainly expressed on antigen presenting cells. Antibodies to GITR have been shown to promote an anti-tumor response through loss of Treg lineage stability. The biotech company TG Therapeutics is working on anti-GITR antibodies
Receptor activator of NF-κB (RANK), which is a type of TNFR, is a central activator of NF-κB. Osteoprotegerin (OPG), which is a decoy receptor homolog for RANK ligand (RANKL), inhibits RANK by binding to RANKL, and, thus, osteoprotegerin is tightly involved in regulating NF-κB activation.
Genes that have NF-κB binding sites are shown to have increased expression following learning, suggesting that the transcriptional targets of NF-κB in the nervous system are important for plasticity. Many NF-κB target genes that may be important for plasticity and learning include growth factors (BDNF, NGF) cytokines (TNF-alpha, TNFR) and kinases (PKAc).
There are two monomers of RANK related by noncrystallographic 2-fold symmetry perpendicular to the long axis of the molecules in the asymmetric unit. RANK contains four CRDs spanning a length of 100 Angstroms which makes it the longest member of the TNFR family to date.
The open reading frame of TNFRSF6B encodes 300 amino acids with a 29-residue signal sequence and four tandem cystein-rich repeats. Two transcript variants encoding the same isoform, but differing in the 5' UTR, have been observed for this gene. Unlike most of the other members of TNFR superfamily, TNFRSF6 is a soluble protein which contains no transmembrane domain.
Two theories of the direct initiation of apoptotic mechanisms in mammals have been suggested: the "TNF-induced" (tumor necrosis factor) model and the "Fas-Fas ligand-mediated" model, both involving receptors of the "TNF receptor" (TNFR) family coupled to extrinsic signals.
The protein encoded by this gene is a member of the TNF receptor associated factor (TRAF) protein family. TRAF proteins associate with, and mediate the signal transduction from, members of the TNF receptor (TNFR) superfamily. This protein participates in the signal transduction of CD40, a TNFR family member important for the activation of the immune response. This protein is found to be a critical component of the lymphotoxin-beta receptor (LTbetaR) signaling complex, which induces NF-kappaB activation and cell death initiated by LTbeta ligation. Epstein-Barr virus encoded latent infection membrane protein-1 (LMP1) can interact with this and several other members of the TRAF family, which may be essential for the oncogenic effects of LMP1. Three alternatively spliced transcript variants encoding two distinct isoforms have been reported.
The protein encoded by this gene is a member of the TNF receptor (TNFR) associated factor (TRAF) protein family. TRAF proteins associate with, and mediate the signal transduction from various receptors of the TNFR superfamily. This protein and TRAF2 form a heterodimeric complex, which is required for TNF-alpha-mediated activation of MAPK8/JNK and NF-kappaB. The protein complex formed by this protein and TRAF2 also interacts with inhibitor-of-apoptosis proteins (IAPs), and thus mediates the anti-apoptotic signals from TNF receptors. The expression of this protein can be induced by Epstein-Barr virus (EBV). EBV infection membrane protein 1 (LMP1) is found to interact with this and other TRAF proteins; this interaction is thought to link LMP1-mediated B lymphocyte transformation to the signal transduction from TNFR family receptors. TRAF1 also functions as a negative regulator of inflammation by interfering with the linear ubiquitination of NEMO downstream of TLR signaling. This explains why TRAF1 polymorphisms cause an increased risk for rheumatic diseases.
The signaling pathway responsible for carrying out necroptosis is generally understood. Production of TNFα during viral infection leads to stimulation of its receptor TNFR1. The TNFR-associated death protein TRADD signals to RIPK1 which recruits RIPK3 forming the necrosome. Phosphorylation of MLKL by the Ripoptosome drives oligomerization of MLKL, allowing MLKL to insert into and permeabilize plasma membranes and organelles. Integration of MLKL leads to the inflammatory phenotype and release of damage-associated molecular patterns (DAMPs), which elicit immune responses.
The low-affinity nerve growth factor receptor (nerve growth factor receptor (TNFR superfamily, member 16), also called the LNGFR or p75 neurotrophin receptor) is one of the two receptor types for the neurotrophins, a family of protein growth factors that stimulate neuronal cells to survive and differentiate. LNGFR is a member of the tumor necrosis factor receptor (TNF receptor)superfamily - indeed, LNGFR was the first member of this large family of receptors to be characterized.
RANK is a 616 amino acid type I transmembrane protein. Its extracellular domain consists of 184 amino acids, its transmembrane domain has 21 amino acids, and its cytoplasmic domain consists of 383 amino acids. Like other members of the TNFR family, it has four extracellular cysteine-rich pseudo-repeat domains (CRDs). It shares 40% amino acid identity with CD40. RANK is encoded on human chromosome 18q22.1. It shows 85% homology between mouse and human homologues.
TCT has been classified as an adjuvant molecule because of the stimulating effects it has on the immune system. Cellular damage associated with TCT is thought to be a result of increased levels of nitric oxide (NO) secretion by mucosal cells as part of an innate defense response to extracellular lipopolysaccharide (LPS) and TCT. In humans, peptidoglycan recognition proteins, e.g. PGRPIαC, appear to bind with TCT and consequently induce the Tumor Necrosis Factor Receptor (TNFR) pathway. Studies using murine macrophages have shown that TCT encourages cytokine secretion, probably through the Nod1 receptor. As a pleiotropic toxin, TCT also acts as a pyrogen and as a stimulant of slow-wave sleep.
TNF promotes the inflammatory response, which, in turn, causes many of the clinical problems associated with autoimmune disorders such as rheumatoid arthritis, ankylosing spondylitis, inflammatory bowel disease, psoriasis, hidradenitis suppurativa and refractory asthma. These disorders are sometimes treated by using a TNF inhibitor. This inhibition can be achieved with a monoclonal antibody such as infliximab (Remicade) binding directly to TNFα, adalimumab (Humira), certolizumab pegol (Cimzia) or with a decoy circulating receptor fusion protein such as etanercept (Enbrel) which binds to TNFα with greater affinity than the TNFR.
Hsp90 is also required for induction of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and nitric oxide synthase (NOS). Both are important for "de novo" angiogenesis that is required for tumour growth beyond the limit of diffusion distance of oxygen in tissues. It also promotes the invasion step of metastasis by assisting the matrix metalloproteinase MMP2. Together with its co-chaperones, Hsp90 modulates tumour cell apoptosis "mediated through effects on AKT, tumor necrosis factor receptors (TNFR) and nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) function." Also, Hsp90 participates in many key processes in oncogenesis such as self-sufficiency in growth signals, stabilization of mutant proteins, angiogenesis, and metastasis.
EDA-A1 and EDA-A2 are two isoforms of ectodysplasin that are encoded by the anhidrotic ectodermal dysplasia (EDA) gene. Mutations in EDA give rise to a clinical syndrome characterized by loss of hair, sweat glands, and teeth. The protein encoded by this gene specifically binds to EDA-A2 isoform. This protein is a type III transmembrane protein of the TNFR (tumor necrosis factor receptor) superfamily, and contains 3 cysteine-rich repeats and a single transmembrane domain but lacks an N-terminal signal peptide. Multiple alternatively spliced transcript variants have been found for this gene, but some variants lack sufficient support.
Precursors to osteoclasts, called pre-osteoclasts, express surface receptors called RANK (receptor activator of nuclear factor-kappa B). RANK is a member of the tumor necrosis factor receptor (TNFR) superfamily. RANK is activated by RANKL (the RANK-Ligand), which exists as cell surface molecules on osteoblasts. Activation of RANK by RANKL promotes the maturation of pre-osteoclasts into osteoclasts. Denosumab inhibits this maturation of osteoclasts by binding to and inhibiting RANKL. This mimics the natural action of osteoprotegerin, an endogenous RANKL inhibitor, that presents with decreasing concentrations (and perhaps decreased avidity) in patients who are suffering from osteoporosis. This protects bone from degradation, and helps to counter the progression of the disease.