Synonyms for transpersonal or Related words with transpersonal

psychosynthesis              jungian              psychoanalysis              hermeneutics              adlerian              psychoanalytic              epistemology              psychohistory              organicism              phenomenology              psychodynamics              holism              enactivism              existentialism              vygotsky              humanistic              perspectivism              biosocial              ecopsychology              metaphysics              epistemological              neuroscientific              vitalism              transhumanism              hermeneutic              neurotheology              metaphilosophy              logotherapy              somaesthetics              intersubjective              anthroposophy              scientism              memetics              sociometry              psychospiritual              autoethnography              behaviorism              panpsychism              pneumatology              objectivism              dialectics              hermeneutical              psychodynamic              metaphysical              socionics              spirituality              freudian              intentionality              pantheism              rebt             



Examples of "transpersonal"
Transpersonal disciplines are academic fields of interest that study the Transpersonal. Among these disciplines we find Transpersonal psychology, Transpersonal psychiatry, Transpersonal anthropology, Transpersonal sociology, and Transpersonal ecology. According to Walsh & Vaughan, who conducted an extensive review on transpersonal definitions, transpersonal disciplines are "those disciplines that focus on the study of transpersonal experiences and related phenomena. These phenomena include the causes, effects and correlates of transpersonal experiences and development, as well as the disciplines and practices inspired by them".
A few commentators have suggested that there is a difference between transpersonal psychology and a broader category of transpersonal theories, sometimes called transpersonal studies. According to Friedman this category might include several approaches to the transpersonal that lie outside the frames of science. However, according to Ferrer the field of transpersonal psychology is "situated within the wider umbrella of transpersonal studies".
Dr. William J. Barry established transpersonal psychology as a valid action research method in the field of education through his Ph.D. thesis and development of Transformational Quality (TQ) Theory. Applications to the areas of business studies and management have been developed. Other transpersonal disciplines, such as transpersonal anthropology and transpersonal business studies, are listed in transpersonal disciplines.
The growth of transpersonal psychology means that this field has relevance to Transpersonal business studies.
Awareness of transpersonal psychology became widespread within psychology, and the "Journal of Transpersonal Psychology" was founded in 1969, a year after Abraham Maslow became the president of the American Psychological Association. In the United States, transpersonal psychology encouraged recognition for non-western psychologies, philosophies, and religions, and promoted understanding of "higher states of consciousness", for instance through intense meditation. Transpersonal psychology has been applied in many areas, including transpersonal business studies.
Criticism from other profiles, close to the field, also include the observations of Ken Wilber and Jorge Ferrer. Wilber, one of the early profiles within the Transpersonal field, has repeatedly announced the demise of Transpersonal psychology. However, the early transpersonal theory of Wilber was itself subject to criticism in the 1980s, most notably from humanistic psychologists. Even though Wilber has distanced himself from Transpersonal psychology in favour of Integral philosophy, his transpersonal model has continued to attract both recognition and criticism.
A 2005 edition of the "Journal of Transpersonal Psychology" has discussed transpersonal aspects of cinema, suggesting grounds for a merge between media studies and transpersonal psychology. This journal includes a seminal paper by Gaylinn, arguing that the media is almost inherently transpersonal insofar as it involves addressing a wider community, therefore helping people to transcend their individuality. Gaylinn also discusses how aspects of films can be transpersonal.
The philosophy of William James, the school of Psychosynthesis (founded by Roberto Assagioli), and the Analytical school of C.G Jung are often considered to be forerunners to the establishment of transpersonal theory. Academic schools that are associated with a transpersonal perspective include Humanistic psychology, Transpersonal psychology, Transpersonal anthropology and Near-Death Studies.
Transpersonal anthropology studies the relationship between altered states of consciousness and culture. As with transpersonal psychology, the field is much concerned with altered states of consciousness (ASC) and transpersonal experience. However, the field differs from mainstream transpersonal psychology in taking more cognizance of cross-cultural issues—for instance, the roles of myth, ritual, diet, and texts in evoking and interpreting extraordinary experiences.
Transpersonal psychology is a school of psychology that studies the transpersonal, self-transcendent or spiritual aspects of the human experience. The "Journal of Transpersonal Psychology" describes transpersonal psychology as "the study of humanity’s highest potential, and with the recognition, understanding, and realization of unitive, spiritual, and transcendent states of consciousness" (Lajoie and Shapiro, 1992:91). Issues considered in transpersonal psychology include spiritual self-development, peak experiences, mystical experiences, systemic trance and other metaphysical experiences of living.
Transpersonal psychology is a school of psychology that studies the transpersonal, self-transcendent or spiritual aspects of the human experience. The "Journal of Transpersonal Psychology" describes transpersonal psychology as "the study of humanity’s highest potential, and with the recognition, understanding, and realization of unitive, spiritual, and transcendent states of consciousness" (Lajoie and Shapiro, 1992:91). Issues considered in transpersonal psychology include spiritual self-development, peak experiences, mystical experiences, systemic trance and other metaphysical experiences of living.
Leading academic publications within the field include the Journal of Transpersonal Psychology and the International Journal of Transpersonal Studies. Smaller publications include the "Transpersonal Psychology Review", the journal of the Transpersonal Psychology Section of the British Psychological Society. In 1996 Basic Books published the "Textbook of Transpersonal Psychiatry and Psychology", a standard text that included a thorough overview of the field. In 1999 Greenwood Press published a title called "Humanistic and transpersonal psychology: A historical and biographical sourcebook", which includes biographical and critical essays on central figures in Humanistic and Transpersonal Psychology. A recent publication, "The Wiley Blackwell Handbook of Transpersonal Psychology", is one of the latest and most updated introductions to the field of Transpersonal Psychology.
Transpersonal Business Studies is an area of interest within the field of transpersonal studies. It may be defined as businesses "in which the sense of identity or self extends beyond (trans) the individual or personal to encompass wider aspects of humankind, life, psyche or cosmos". Since the foundation of transpersonal psychology by Abraham Maslow in the late 1960s, other transpersonal disciplines have been considered.
The scholarship of Jorge Ferrer introduces a more pluralistic and participatory perspective on spiritual and ontological dimensions. In his revision of transpersonal theory Ferrer questions three major presuppositions, or frameworks for interpretation, that have been dominant in transpersonal studies. These are the frameworks of Experientalism (the transpersonal understood as an individual inner experience); Inner empiricism (the study of transpersonal phenomena according to the standards of empiricist science); and perennialism (the legacy of the perennial philosophy in transpersonal studies). Although representing important frames of reference for the initial study of transpersonal phenomena, Ferrer believes that these assumptions have become limiting and problematic for the development of the field.
Several academic fields have a strong relation to the field of transpersonal psychology. Related academic fields include near-death studies, parapsychology and humanistic psychology. The major findings of near-death studies are represented in the "Textbook of Transpersonal Psychiatry and Psychology", and in the "The Wiley-Blackwell Handbook of Transpersonal Psychology". The near-death experience is also discussed in relation to other transpersonal and spiritual categories. The major findings of parapsychology are also represented in the "Textbook of Transpersonal Psychiatry and Psychology", and in the "The Wiley-Blackwell Handbook of Transpersonal Psychology".
In 1988 Hope founded the Institute of Transpersonal Sensitivity in America, intending to establish a relation between transpersonal experience and the approved schools of psychology.
Albert Ellis, a cognitive psychologist and humanist, has questioned the results of transpersonal psychotherapy, the scientific status of transpersonal psychology, and its relationship to religion, mysticism and authoritarian belief systems. This criticism has been answered by Wilber who questioned Ellis' understanding of the domain of religion, and the field of Transpersonal Psychology, and Walsh who questioned Ellis' critique of nonrational-emotive therapies. Also, commentators note that Ellis, in his later writings, has expressed a more moderate view of religious/spiritual/transpersonal experiences.
In a review of previous definitions Walsh and Vaughan suggested that transpersonal psychology is an "area of psychology that focuses on the study of transpersonal experiences and related phenomena. These phenomena include the causes, effects and correlates of transpersonal experiences and development, as well as the disciplines and practices inspired by them". They have also criticised many definitions of transpersonal psychology for carrying implicit assumptions, or presuppositions, that may not necessarily define the field as a whole.
Transpersonal art is one of the disciplines considered by Boucovolas, in listing how transpersonal psychology may relate to other areas of transpersonal study. In writing about transpersonal art, Boucovolas begins by noting how, according to Breccia and also to the definitions employed by the International Transpersonal Association in 1971, transpersonal art may be understood as art work which draws upon important themes beyond the individual self, such as the transpersonal consciousness. This makes transpersonal art criticism germane to mystical approaches to creativity. Transpersonal art criticism, as Boucovolas notes, can be considered that which claims conventional art criticism has been too committed to stressing rational dimensions of art and has subsequently said little on art's spiritual dimensions, or as that which holds art work has a meaning beyond the individual person. Certain aspects of the psychology of Carl Jung, as well as movements such as music therapy and art therapy, may also relate to the field. Boucovolas' paper cites Breccia (1971) as an early example of transpersonal art, and claims that at the time his article appeared, integral theorist Ken Wilber had made recent contributions to the field. More recently, the Journal of Transpersonal Psychology, in 2005, Volume 37, launched a special edition devoted to the media, which contained articles on film criticism that can be related to this field.
Gradually, during the 1960s, the term "transpersonal" was associated with a distinct school of psychology within the humanistic psychology movement. In 1969, Abraham Maslow, Stanislav Grof and Anthony Sutich were among the initiators behind the publication of the first issue of the "Journal of Transpersonal Psychology", the leading academic journal in the field. During the next decade significant establishments took place under the banner of Transpersonal Psychology. The "Association for Transpersonal Psychology" was established in 1972. This was soon to be followed by the founding of the "Institute of Transpersonal Psychology", a graduate training center, in 1975 . The institute was founded by Robert Frager and James Fadiman in response to the academic climate of the 1970s, and included transpersonal and spiritual approaches to psychology. Soon other institutions, with transpersonal psychology programs, followed. Among these were Saybrook Graduate School, the California Institute of Asian Studies (now California Institute of Integral Studies), JFK University, and Naropa.