Synonyms for tukulor or Related words with tukulor
Examples of "tukulor"
The Second Battle of Jenné was a military engagement between the armies of the
Empire and the French Third Republic. It was the last major battle in the Franco-
Wars. The French won a decisive victory, forcing Ahmadu Tall to flee to the Sokoto Caliphate in what is now Nigeria. The already waning
Empire fell apart as a result.
Its origin lies with the clothing worn by the Islamic
, Mandé and Songhai peoples of the 8th-century Takrur and Ghana Empires, and 13th-century Mali and Songhai Empires. (See Bisht and kaftan for information on these.)
The Toucouleur Empire (also known as the Tijaniyya Jihad state or the Segu
) (1861-1890) was founded in the mid-nineteenth century by El Hadj Umar Tall of the Toucouleur people, in part of present-day Mali.
The Toucouleur people, also called
or Haalpulaar, are a West African ethnic group. They are found mostly in Futa Toro region of Senegal, with some in Mali and Mauritania. The Toucouleur have been Muslims who embraced Islam in the 11th century, their early and strong Islamic heritage is a matter of great pride for them. They have been influential in the spread of Islam to West Africa in the medieval era, later founded the vast
Empire in the 19th century under Umar Tal that led a religious war against their neighboring ethnic groups and the French colonial forces.
Tall is the great-great grandson of West African Emperor Umar Tall and the great grandson of West African King Agibu Tall. Stretching across much of what is now Senegal, Guinea and Mali, they were leaders of the
empire in the nineteenth century.
The Wolof, the largest ethnic group in Senegal, have a distinctive musical tradition that, along with the influence of neighboring Fulani,
, Serer, Jola, and Malinke cultures, has contributed greatly to popular Senegalese music, and to West African music in general. Wolof music takes its roots from the Serer musical tradition, particularly from the Serer pre-colonial Kingdom of Saloum. Virtually all Wolof musical terminology including musical instruments comes from the Serer language.
Louis Archinard (11 February 1850 – 8 May 1932) was a French Army general at the time of the Third Republic, who contributed to the colonial conquest of French West Africa. He was traditionally presented in French histories as the conqueror and ""Pacifier"" of French Soudan (today Mali). Archinard's campaigns brought about the end of the
Empire. He also spent a large amount of energy fighting Samory Toure. In 1897 Archinard was reassigned to French Indochina.
The First Battle of Jenné was a military engagement between the armies of the
Empire and the French Third Republic. French forces under the command of Lieutenant Colonel Louis Archinard seized the capital of Ahmadu Tall on the Bani River. The engagement was hard fought and the results uncertain “until the last hour” according to French sources. Almami Ahmadu was forced to withdraw, and Umar Tall’s son Agibu was placed on the throne as a puppet ruler.
The Toucouleur people are a Muslim West African ethnic group found mostly in Futa Toro region of Senegal, with some in Mali and Mauritania. The Toucouleur embraced Islam in the 11th century, their early and strong Islamic heritage is a matter of great pride for them. They have been influential in the spread of Islam to West Africa in the medieval era, later founded the vast
Empire in the 19th century under Umar Tal that led a religious war against their neighboring ethnic groups and the French colonial forces. The Toucouleur society has been patrilineal, polygynous and with high social stratification that included slavery and caste system.
Tamari has described endogamous castes of over fifteen West African peoples, including the
, Songhay, Dogon, Senufo, Minianka, Moors, Manding, Soninke, Wolof, Serer, Fulani, and Tuareg. Castes appeared among the "Malinke" people no later than 14th century, and was present among the "Wolof" and "Soninke", as well as some "Songhay" and "Fulani" populations, no later than 16th century. Tamari claims that wars, such as the "Sosso-Malinke" war described in the "Sunjata" epic, led to the formation of blacksmith and bard castes among the people that ultimately became the Mali empire.
To understand Senegal's popularity as a mixture of different sounds is understanding Senegal's history of colonization. Modern Senegal is made up of an ethnically diverse group of people. "The largest of the city include the Wolof (44% of the population), Fulani and
(24%), Serer (15%), Diola (5%) and, Mandinka (4%)." During the 9th century the
settled in the Senegal River Valley and resided there until the 14th century. Within their rein, into the mid 11th century they converted to Islam. The Mali Empire expanded during the 14th century, and in the 15th century, the Wolf established the Jolof Empire in Senegal. The Portuguese settlers set up trading spaces for access to resources, but by the 17th century, the city was rid of the Portuguese by the Dutch and the French. The French resided there until 1895 when Senegal was established as a French colony. In the early 1960s Senegal became an autonomous republic within the French community. Hence forward, the estate went through several forms of political oppression and reconstruction until finally Abdoulaye Wade was elected president (March 2000) and the Senegalese Democratic Party had finally won, bringing peace and improvement to the land. "The development of modern music dates back to the musical traditions established by 'griots' in the days of the Mali-Songhay empires." It can be noted that the first form of musical expression made in Senegal date back to the 14th century in the forms of griots.
The old core of the empire was divided into three spheres of influence. Kangaba, the de facto capital of Mandem, since the time of the last emperor, became the capital of the northern sphere. The Joma area, governed from Siguiri, controlled the central region, which encompassed Niani. Hamana (or Amana), southwest of Joma, became the southern sphere with its capital at Kouroussa in modern Guinea. Each ruler used the title of mansa, but their authority only extended as far as their own sphere of influence. Despite this disunity in the realm, the realm remained under Mandinka control into the mid-17th century. The three states warred on each other as much if not more than they did against outsiders, but rivalries generally stopped when faced with invasion. This trend would continue into colonial times against
enemies from the west.
Borgnis-Desbordes is most remembered as a daring and restless commander of the French colonial expansion into the Middle Niger River Valley. He served as a Lieutenant-Colonel under the Governor of Senegal Louis Brière de l'Isle (1876–1881). Between 1880 and 1883 Borgnis-Desbordes was "Commandant-Superieur du Haut-Fleuve", Commander of the Military Territory of Haut Senegal, which was later expanded to the east and rechristened French Soudan in 1890. He founded the French forts at Kita (1881) and Bamako (1883), which became two of the key towns of French Soudan. In the process he launched a series of military campaigns against the remnants of the regional power of the
Empire, which was finally overthrown by Colonel Louis Archinard in 1890.
More Senegalese Sufis identify with the Tijaniyya order than any other. This order was brought to Senegal by El Hadj Umar Tall (1780-1840), who attempted to create an Islamic empire and organize all Muslims. Though he largely failed during his lifetime, the order has since expanded greatly. The Tijanis place a strong emphasis on Koranic education, and have created schools for girls as well. There are three dynasties of Tijanis, depending on the marabout a following owes most allegiance to: the Sy and Niasse in Wolof and Serer, and the Tall in
. The Niasses are sometimes seen as radical and a threat to Senegalese national authority, but Tijanis have otherwise maintained strong relationships with the Senegalese government.
Tijan Sallah was born in Sere Kunda, The Gambia, eight miles from the capital city of Bathurst (now called Banjul) on March 6, 1958. He is the fourth child and third son in a family of seven. He attended Sufi koranic schools (locally known as daras) first ran by Seringe Njai, Sering Jobe and Sering Sarr, and then entered Sere Kunda Primary school where he came under several prominent primary teachers such as Harrietta Ndow and Dawda Faal. After passing the common entrance examinations, he entered St. Augustine's High School, run by Irish Holy Ghost Fathers and was exposed to classical British literary texts (Shakespeare's plays, Orwell's "Animal Farm", Dickens works, etc.), Latin, and intensive study of the Old and New Testament of the Bible. Although his father, Momadou Musa Sallah (Dodou Sallah), was imam of the local mosque in Sere-Kunda, he did not mind his son studying the Bible, as it was part of the heritage of the Abrahamic religions. His father, a strict disciplinarian, was of noble
ethnic heritage, coming from a long line of rulers going back to Yelibannah Musa Sall (the Lamtorro or King of Geddeh in Haluwarr, Futa Torro) and Burr Saloum Beram Njameh Njahanah (ruler or King of Saloum) on his grandmother's line. Sallah's mother, Mama Gai, is of Wolof and Serere ethnic heritage linked to the Njai and Mboge clans of Saloum. In Sallah's lineage, also, is Mama Tamba Jammeh of Baddibu, and some links through marriage to the Badjan's, Ceesay's, and Manneh's (Mandinka nobles, Nyanchos).
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