Synonyms for umm_el_jimal or Related words with umm_el_jimal


Examples of "umm_el_jimal"
G. Corbett came to Umm el-Jimal in 1956 to study the Julianos Church and much of his work corrected the mistakes made by Butler. Corbett also refined how Umm el-Jimal is thought of today by demonstrating that many of the buildings were constructed reusing pieces from earlier buildings.
Umm el-Jimal was rediscovered in the nineteenth century, during a time of Western interest in antiquities. The first systematic survey was completed by the Princeton University Expedition to Southern Syria in 1905 and 1909.
Umm el-Jimal is a large village located in northern Jordan less than 10 km from the Syrian border. It is located in the Hauran, the northern desert region of the country. Despite this aridity, Umm el-Jimal is surprisingly well suited for agriculture, and its livelihood and economy is largely derived from agricultural and pastoral sustenance. The ruins of an ancient village lie in the midst of modern Umm el-Jimal. The ruins date from the Nabataean through the Abbasid periods. The earthquake of circa AD 749 did major damage, but the community survived well into the Abbasid period. In the early twentieth century the area was repopulated by the Druze and then the Bedouin Msa'eid tribe.
Everything changed after the rebellion led by Queen Zenobia of Palmyra in AD 275. The local people were no longer allowed to govern themselves, but had to submit to harsh foreign rule. Due to its location on the fringe of the Empire, Umm el-Jimal became a military outpost complete with a garrison and a new Tetrarchic-era fort. As Roman imperial power began to diminish, this earlier castellum lost its military function, and Umm el-Jimal gradually transformed from a military station to a civilian town. Paradoxically, from the point of view of the local Arab residents of the Hauran, this change may have been viewed as liberation rather than decline.
There are a number of altars to Nabataean gods located on the site of Petra, including Dushara Aarra. Dushara, a god of Petra, is linked to Aarra, the patron god of Bostra, who become a unique regional deity. Both the Nabataean and Greek versions of his name can be seen inscribed on the die (middle section) of an altar, found in the western area of the ruins. Another god present at the site is Zeus Epikoos, a mixture of Zeus and the local deity Epikoos. In this case an altar was found in a courtyard, representative of a regional god. The altar found at Umm el-Jimal suggests personal devotion by a local resident to this deity. The third deity found at Umm el-Jimal is Solmos, who is not known elsewhere and may also be a local deity, perhaps only worshipped by the people of Umm el-Jimal and the immediate surrounding area. His name is found only once, on an altar inscription in the main ruins of Umm el-Jimal. Because this is the only known evidence of the worship of Solmos, it is reasonable to believe his worshipers were relatively few and localized. There is evidence on tombstones and small altars scattered throughout the site that suggests the worship of other deities, perhaps personal or familial gods not worshiped communally.
ACOR has led or been affiliated with many archaeological and restoration projects in the area, most notably: 'Ain Ghazal, Amman Citadel's Temple of Hercules, Ayla in Aqaba, Bab edh-Dhra, Hesban, Humeima, Khirbet Iskander, Madaba Archaeological Park Project, Pella, Petra Church Project, Petra Temple of the Winged Lions Cultural Resource Management, and Umm el-Jimal.
Furthermore, Irbid's strategic location in northern Jordan makes it a convenient starting point for tourists interested in seeing the northern Jordan Valley; visiting Umm Qais, Beit Ras (Capitolias), Pella, Ajloun, Umm el-Jimal, and other historical sites; or traveling on to Syria.
Some archaeological excavation quests have led to the discovery of ancient pre-Islamic inscriptions and tombs made by Arab Christians in the ruins of a church at Umm el-Jimal in Northern Jordan, which contained references to Allah as the proper name of God, and some of the graves contained names such as "Abd Allah" which means "the servant/slave of Allah".
The first recorded visit to the site was by William John Bankes (1786-1855) in 1818 who conducted a brief description of Umm el-Jimal. Between 1818 and 1905 many Westerners passed through the site and made a few recordings but all were brief and inconclusive.
Umayyad Umm el-Jimal appears to have been part Christian and part Muslim with the two religious groups coexisting under the policy of the Dhimma. Scholars debate the idea that some of the churches in Umm el-Jimal were converted into mosques. In these former churches, the apse was blocked off and the focus of the structure's space was shifted south towards Mecca. Whether this is the case or not, it is more evident that two houses were converted to mosques with typically Umayyad plans and a small tower on the exterior of its west face indicating the presence of a minaret. The predominant Muslim modern community is served by several newly constructed mosques outside the antiquities (de Vries, Bert).
The village of Umm el-Jimal originated in the first century AD as a rural suburb of the ancient Nabataean capital of Bostra. A number of Greek and Nabataean inscriptions found on the site date the village to this time. During the first century, the population of the site is estimated at 2,000-3,000 people. Upon the foundation of Provincia Arabia in AD 106, the Romans took over the village as Emperor Trajan incorporated the surrounding lands into the empire. In the village, the Romans erected a number of buildings including the Praetorium and the large reservoir near the castellum. After the Rebellion of Queen Zenobia in 275, Roman countermeasures included the construction of a fort (Tetrarchic castellum) that housed a military garrison. As Roman influence in the area gradually diminished, the area once again became a rural village. During the 5th and 6th centuries, Umm el-Jimal prospered as a farming and trading town in which the population jumped to an estimated 4,000-6,000 people. However, after the Muslim conquests of the 7th century, the village population diminished even though building projects and renovations continued to take place. In circa 749, an earthquake destroyed much of the area and Umm el-Jimal was abandoned like other towns and villages. The village remained uninhabited for nearly eleven hundred years until the modern community developed in the twentieth century.
Umm el-Jimal (Arabic: ام الجمال, "Mother of Camels"), also known as Umm ej Jemāl, Umm al-Jimal or Umm idj-Djimal, is a village in Northern Jordan approximately 17 kilometers east of Mafraq. It is primarily notable for the substantial ruins of a Byzantine and early Islamic town which are clearly visible above the ground, as well as an older Roman village (locally referred to as al-Herri) located to the southwest of the Byzantine ruins.
Mafraq was first settled in the 4th century BC. It is located about 17 km west from the historic Nabataean and Byzantine town of Umm el-Jimal, which was built in the 1st century. The city gained a significant importance after the establishment of the Hejaz Railway connecting Istanbul to Medina. Mafraq was also the location of a British military base and airport from the early 20th century. It later became the base for the Arab Legion during the 1948 Arab–Israeli War.
Little is known of pre-historical times in Umm el-Jimal, aside from the few scattered remains of what appear to be settlements of nomadic hunter-gatherer tribes. In some of these places it is possible to find chert knapping stones and some prehistoric tools. In the nearby wadis the remains of kites, which are large animal traps, have been found. The prehistoric people would have used these to catch large groups of animals at once (Hoksbergen 2010).
The Tanûkhids () or Tanukh () were originally from the Nabataean ( Arabic : نبط) confederation of Arab tribes, sometimes characterized as Saracens. They first rose to prominence in northern Arabia and south of Syria in the 3rd century BC. Both Lakhmid and Tanukhid inscriptions have been found at Umm el-Jimal in Jordan and Nimreh in Syria.The ancient Tanukhi tribal confederation was largely taken over by several branches of the Ishmailite Nabt tribe.
The Islamic era at Umm el-Jimal began in 640 when the Rashidun Caliphs took control of the area. Much remodeling was done throughout the site so as to repurpose buildings to suit their own needs. The Praetorium and House XVIII are examples of buildings repurposed as dwelling places, while House 53 was possibly repurposed into a mosque. Despite all of this, the population decreased and the site was slowly abandoned with the help of an earthquake in circa 749 that destroyed many buildings and set much of the architecture off balance. The site was completely deserted under the Abbasid Caliphs in the ninth century.
Howard Crosby Butler led the Princeton Expedition and his papers (PES II: 151) contain a more exhaustive account of those who came to Umm el-Jimal between 1818 and 1905. Butler remained at the site for two weeks mapping the site and drawing diagrams of several of the buildings. Butler's work has proved invaluable in guiding others to the site and in garnering further interest in studying the site. His survey of 1905 provided the groundwork for the field work still being conducted today.
The village of Umm el-Jimal is located in the semi-arid region of Jordan known as the Southern Hauran, at the western edge of the desert Badiya region. The area consists mainly of the igneous rock basalt, which was used as the primary building material. Basalt also served as a natural insulation which was extremely important in the area. In the cool winter months the basalt blocks would trap the heat from the sun and then radiate that heat throughout the structure, thus acting as a natural heating source. In the hot summer months it would serve as a cooling unit because the dense nature of the blocks trapped the cool air within the structure, despite the fact that temperatures exceed 100 °F. The volcanic nature of the soil has made it one of the most fertile areas in Jordan and Syria.
In the spring of 270, while Claudius was fighting the Goths in the mountains of Thrace, Zenobia sent her general Septemius Zabdas to Bostra (capital of the province of Arabia Petraea); the queen's timing seems intentional. In Arabia the Roman governor ("dux"), Trassus (commanding the Legio III Cyrenaica), confronted the Palmyrenes and was routed and killed. Zabdas destroyed the temple of Zeus Hammon, the legion's revered shrine. A Latin inscription after the fall of Zenobia attests to its destruction: "The temple of Iuppiter Hammon, destroyed by the Palmyrene enemies, which ... rebuilt, with a silver statue and iron doors (?)". The city of Umm el-Jimal may have also been destroyed by the Palmyrenes in connection with their efforts to subjugate the Tanukhids.
By the early 19th century, the village had been abandoned like many of the other villages of Jabal Hauran due to Bedouin depredations. Druze migrants from other parts of Syria populated the villages of Jabal Hauran by the 1860s. Dhibin became part of the sheikhdom of the Bani al-Atrash clan under the leadership of Ismail al-Atrash between 1860 and 1867. The inhabitants of Dhibin moved to annex and seasonally inhabit the village of Umm el-Jimal (in modern-day Jordan) in 1909. Dhibin's families divided the ruins of its ancient houses among themselves in 1910. They lived there on and off until around 1930, when they permanently abandoned Umm al-Jimal. Dhibin was the birthplace of Salim Hatum, a Syrian Army officer and key participant in the Baathist-led 1966 Syrian coup d'état.