Synonyms for vaginismus or Related words with vaginismus
Examples of "vaginismus"
has been classified by Lamont according to the severity of the condition. Lamont describes four degrees of
: In first degree
, the patient has spasm of the pelvic floor that can be relieved with reassurance. In second degree, the spasm is present but maintained throughout the pelvis even with reassurance. In third degree, the patient elevates the buttocks to avoid being examined. In fourth degree
(also known as grade 4
), the most severe form of
, the patient elevates the buttocks, retreats and tightly closes the thighs to avoid examination. Pacik expanded the Lamont classification to include a fifth degree in which the patient experiences a visceral reaction such as sweating, hyperventilation, palpitations, trembling, shaking, nausea, vomiting, losing consciousness, wanting to jump off the table, or attacking the doctor. The Lamont classification continues to be used to the present and allows for a common language among researchers and therapists.
occurs when a person who has previously been able to achieve penetration develops
. This may be due to physical causes such as a yeast infection or trauma during childbirth, while in some cases it may be due to psychological causes, or to a combination of causes. The treatment for secondary
is the same as for primary
, although, in these cases, previous experience with successful penetration can assist in a more rapid resolution of the condition. Peri-menopausal and menopausal
, often due to a drying of the vulvar and vaginal tissues as a result of reduced estrogen, may occur as a result of "micro-tears" first causing sexual pain then leading to
A few of the main factors that may contribute to primary
Further factors that may contribute to either Secondary or Primary
The condition is often confused with
which is a much simpler condition and easily rectified with simple exercises.
A woman with
does not consciously control the spasm. The vaginismic reflex can be compared to the response of the eye shutting when an object comes towards it. The severity of
, as well as the pain during penetration (including sexual penetration), varies from woman to woman.
According to Ward and Ogden's qualitative study on the experience of
(1994), the three most common contributing factors to
are fear of painful sex; the belief that sex is wrong or shameful (often the case with patients who had a strict religious upbringing); and traumatic early childhood experiences (not necessarily sexual in nature).
Penis captivus is a rare occurrence in intercourse when the muscles in the vagina clamp down on the penis much more firmly than usual (a form of
), making it impossible for the penis to withdraw from the vagina. According to a 1979 article in the "British Medical Journal", this condition was unknown in the twentieth century, but a subsequent letter to the same journal reported an apparent case of "penis captivus" in 1947. "Penis captivus" should not be confused with
, though a relation between the supposed event of "penis captivus" and the occurrence of
is assumed in the existing descriptions.
Often, when faced with a person experiencing painful intercourse, a gynecologist will recommend Kegel exercises and provide some additional lubricants. Strengthening the muscles that unconsciously tighten during
may be extremely counter-intuitive for some people. Also,
has not been shown to affect a person's ability to produce lubrication, thus providing lubricants may be extraneous to the actual condition. Treatment of
may involve the use Hegar dilators, (sometimes called vaginal trainers) progressively increasing the size of the dilator inserted into the vagina.
If someone suspects they have
, sexual penetration is likely to remain painful or truly impossible until their
is addressed. This is a highly frustrating condition, as other people, including doctors, may speculate negatively on the origin or existence of their difficulties.
does not mean that someone does not want intercourse or does not love their partner. People with
may be able to engage in a variety of other sexual activities, as long as penetration is avoided. Sexual partners of vaginismic people may come to believe that vaginismic people do not want to engage in penetrative sex at all, though this may not be true for most such people. There is currently no indication that
reduces the sexual drive or arousal of affected people, and as such it is likely that many vaginismic people wish to engage in penetrative sex to the same degree as unaffected people, but are deterred by the pain and emotional distress that accompanies each attempt. Psychological pressure to "perform" sexually or become aroused quickly with a partner can deter the person from future attempts and/or cause their
to become more severe.
Yitzchak M. "Irv" Binik (born February 6, 1949) is an American-Canadian psychologist whose main research interest is human sexuality, specifically sexual pain (
Involuntary vaginal contractions may arise from non-sexual causes. Involuntary spasm of the muscles around the vagina, usually caused by anxiety, can result in
is involuntary tensing of the pelvic floor musculature, making coitus, or any form of penetration of the vagina, distressing, painful and sometimes impossible for women. It is a conditioned reflex of the pubococcygeus muscle, and is sometimes referred to as the "PC muscle."
can be hard to overcome because if a woman expects to experience pain during sexual intercourse, this can cause a muscle spasm, which results in painful sexual intercourse. Treatment of
often includes both psychological and behavioral techniques, including the use of vaginal dilators. Additionally, the use of Botox as a medical treatment for
has been tested and administered. Painful or uncomfortable sexual intercourse may also be categorized as dyspareunia.
A woman is said to have primary
when she is unable to have penetrative sex or experience vaginal penetration without pain. It is commonly discovered in teenage girls and women in their early twenties, as this is when many girls and young women first attempt to use tampons, have penetrative sex, or undergo a Pap smear. Women with
may be unaware of the condition until they attempt vaginal penetration. A woman may be unaware of the reasons for her condition.
True epidemiological studies of
have not been done, as diagnosis would require painful examinations that such women would most likely avoid. Data available is primarily reported statistics from clinical settings.
Sexual pain disorders affect women almost exclusively and are also known as dyspareunia (painful intercourse) or
(an involuntary spasm of the muscles of the vaginal wall that interferes with intercourse).
are twice as likely to have a history of childhood sexual interference and held less positive attitudes about their sexuality, whereas no correlation was noted for lack of sexual knowledge or (non-sexual) physical abuse.
Perineoplasty is generally considered effective for treatment of dyspareunia, including that caused by lichen sclerosus, and
. It is also considered an effective treatment for vulvar vestibulitis, although it is generally recommended following the failure of nonsurgical methods.
An endometrial biopsy usually cannot be done as an office procedure in children, young women, women with
, or women with cervical stenosis. If necessary, an examination under anesthesia could be performed at which time a biopsy could be taken.
A Cochrane review found little high quality evidence regarding the treatment of
in 2012. Specifically it is unclear if systematic desensitisation is better than other measures including nothing.
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