Synonyms for varicocele or Related words with varicocele
Examples of "varicocele"
can reduce testosterone production in both testies due to increased temperature from the great volume of backed up blood in the
veins. Leydig cells' ability to produce testosterone is reduced in individuals with
. Some studies have shown increases in blood testosterone levels in individuals that have undergone
Varicose veins of the spermatic cord are referred to as
. Though often asymptomatic, about one in four people with
have negatively affected fertility.
Couples who are infertile secondary to nonobstructive azoospermia and concurrent
, may benefit from proceeding directly to microsurgical testicular sperm extraction (microTESE) and deferring
is due to compression of the venous drainage of the testicle. A pelvic or abdominal malignancy is a definite concern when a unilateral right-sided
is newly diagnosed in a patient older than 40 years of age. One non-malignant cause of a secondary
is the so-called "Nutcracker syndrome", a condition in which the superior mesenteric artery compresses the left renal vein, causing increased pressures there to be transmitted retrograde into the left pampiniform plexus. The most common cause is renal cell carcinoma (a.k.a. hypernephroma) followed by retroperitoneal fibrosis or adhesions.
Upon palpation of the scrotum, a non-tender, twisted mass along the spermatic cord is felt. Palpating a
can be likened to feeling a bag of worms. When one is lying down, gravity may allow the drainage of the pampiniform plexus and thus make the mass not obvious. This is especially true in primary
, and absence may be a sign for clinical concern. The testicle on the side of the
may or may not be smaller compared to the other side.
Narath was the author of papers on
surgery, pneumatocele parotid, retroperitoneal lymph cysts and omentum-plasty, to name a few.
The small vessels of the pampiniform plexus normally range from 0.5–1.5 mm in diameter. Dilation of these vessels greater than 2 mm is called a
Microsurgery has been used to treat several pathologic conditions leading to infertility such as tubal obstructions, vas deferens obstructions and
which is one of the most frequent cause of male infertility. Microsurgical drainages by placing micro vascular bypasses between spermatic and inferior epigastric veins as proposed by Flati et al. have been successfully performed in treating male infertility due to
. Microsurgical treatment has been shown to significantly improve fertility rate also in patients with recurrent
who had previously undergone non microsurgical treatments.
is an abnormal enlargement of the pampiniform venous plexus in the scrotum. This plexus of veins drains the testicles. The testicular blood vessels originate in the abdomen and course down through the inguinal canal as part of the spermatic cord on their way to the testis. Upward flow of blood in the veins is ensured by small one-way valves that prevent backflow. Defective valves, or compression of the vein by a nearby structure, can cause dilation of the testicular veins near the testis, leading to the formation of a
. Causes of
include valvular incompetence, Nutcracker syndrome, and renal cell carcinoma. Varicoceles occur in 20% of all men.
Since the left gonad drains via the left renal vein it can also result in left testicular pain in men or left lower quadrant pain in women. Nausea and vomiting can result due to compression of the splanchnic veins. An unusual manifestation of NCS includes
formation and varicose veins in the lower limbs. Another clinical study has shown that nutcracker syndrome is a frequent finding in
-affected patients and possibly, nutcracker syndrome should be routinely excluded as a possible cause of
and pelvic congestion.
Lifestyle factors such as activity type, diet, bowel health, testicular temperature, smoking, and alcohol moderation can affect both the occurrence rate and
There is tentative evidence that
surgery may improve fertility in those with obvious findings and abnormal sperm. Prior research found an unclear effect on spontaneous pregnancy rates.
specifically refers to dilatation and tortuosity of the pampiniform plexus, which is the network of veins that drain the testicle. This plexus travels along the posterior portion of the testicle with the epididymis and vas deferens, and then into the spermatic cord. This network of veins coalesces into the gonadal, or testicular, vein. The right gonadal vein drains into the inferior vena cava, while the left gonadal vein drains into the left renal vein at right angle to the renal vein, which then drains into the inferior vena cava. One of the main functions of the plexus is to lower the temperature of the testicles;
causes this function to be lost, hence the most common complication of untreated
is higher temperature of the testes, resulting in testicular atrophy causing infertility.
A 2012 Cochrane review found tentative but unclear evidence of improved fertility among males treated for
. The benefit may be as large as one per seven men treated.
Among his developments in urology were his technique to puncture the bladder (cytotomy), various methods of removing urinary calculi, external and internal urethrotomies, the subcutaneous ligation of
veins using the fisherman's knot, and genital operations.
In 1930, Howard went to a hospital in Temple complaining of a
, gas in the stomach and an abnormally small penis. The working diagnosis at the time was sexual neurasthenia but the symptoms may instead point towards neurotic depressive disorder. The doctor concluded that "We do not think there is anything wrong with Robert. We can find no
of any consequence, and his organs are normally developed and he tests out good in every respect. His trouble, in our judgment, is due to his thinking there is something wrong. After he has dispelled this thought from his mind he will be in fine shape."
Usually, the patient disrobes completely and puts on a gown. The physician, physician assistant, or nurse practitioner will perform a thorough examination of the penis, scrotum, testicles, vas deferens, spermatic cords, ejaculatory ducts, urethra, urinary bladder, anus and rectum. An orchidometer can measure testicular volume, which in turn is tightly associated with both sperm and hormonal parameters. A physical exam of the scrotum can reveal a
, but the impact of detecting and surgically correct a
on sperm parameters or overall male fertility is debated.
can be reliably diagnosed with ultrasound, which will show dilation of the vessels of the pampiniform plexus to greater than 2 mm. The patient being studied should undergo a provocative maneuver, such as Valsalva's maneuver (attempting expiration against a closed airway) or standing up during the exam, both of which are designed to increase intra-abdominal venous pressure and increase the dilatation of the veins. Doppler ultrasound is a technique of measuring the speed at which blood is flowing in a vessel. An ultrasound machine that has a Doppler mode can see blood reverse direction in a
with a Valsalva, increasing the sensitivity of the examination.
Dr. Goldstein is a specialist in male infertility and scrotal disorders and is internationally renowned for his pioneering work on microsurgical management of male infertility such as vasectomy reversals, varicocelectomy, Hydrocele, Inguinal hernia repair and testis-sparing testicular tumor excision. He was the first American surgeon to be trained in, and perform, the Chinese method of no-scalpel vasectomy. Dr. Goldstein's research has shown that there is a direct link between
and low testosterone and
and loss of fertility in men. His research has also shown that the presence of varicoceles can run in families.
In 1856 - he is suffering from tubercular laryngitis, the illness that will kill him. A
torments him this testicular rouble flares up. The nature of his work on the mural ' means that he is always either standing or perched up on a ladder, increasing his discomfort.'
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