Synonyms for virilization or Related words with virilization


Examples of "virilization"
Some of the possible causes of virilization in women are:
Virilization or masculinization is the biological development of sex differences, changes that make a male body different from a female body. Most of the changes of virilization are produced by androgens. Virilization is most commonly used in three medical and biology of gender contexts: prenatal sexual differentiation, the postnatal changes of normal male puberty, and excessive androgen effects in girls or women.
Aromatase deficiency is a condition resulting from insufficient production of the enzyme aromatase, which can result in inappropriate virilization of female fetuses and delayed puberty, as well as inappropriate virilization of the mother during pregnancy.
See virilization for a more detailed description of the normal process and newborn status.
Virilization can occur in childhood in either boys or girls due to excessive amounts of androgens. Typical effects of virilization in children are pubic hair, accelerated growth and bone maturation, increased muscle strength, acne, and adult body odor. In a boy, virilization may signal precocious puberty, while congenital adrenal hyperplasia and androgen producing tumors (usually) of the gonads or adrenals are occasional causes in both sexes.
Prenatal virilization of genetic females and undervirilization of genetic males are common causes of ambiguous genitalia and intersex conditions.
In the prenatal period, virilization refers to closure of the perineum, thinning and wrinkling (rugation) of the scrotum, growth of the phallus, and closure of the urethral groove to the tip of the penis. In this context, "masculinization" is synonymous with "virilization."
In an XX (genetically female) fetus, elevated amounts of DHEA can produce moderate virilization by conversion in the liver to testosterone. Virilization of genetic females is partial, often mild, and rarely raises assignment questions. The issues surrounding corrective surgery of the virilized female genitalia are the same as for moderate 21-hydroxylase deficiency but surgery is rarely considered desirable.
Women who are administered oxandrolone may experience virilization, the non-reversible development of masculine features such as voice deepening, hirsutism, menstruation abnormalities, male-pattern hair loss, and clitoral enlargement. Oxandrolone may disrupt growth in children, reducing their adult height. Because of these side effects, doses given to women and children are chosen carefully and patients are usually monitored for virilization and growth abnormalities.
All of the issues related to virilization, neonatal assignment, advantages and disadvantages of genital surgery, childhood and adult virilization, gender identity and sexual orientation are similar to those of 21-hydroxylase CAH and elaborated in more detail in Congenital adrenal hyperplasia.
11β-OH CAH resembles 21-hydroxylase deficient CAH in its androgenic manifestations: partial virilization and ambiguous genitalia of genetically female infants, childhood virilization of both sexes, and rarer cases of virilization or infertility of adolescent and adult women. The mineralocorticoid effect differs: hypertension is usually the clinical clue that a patient has 11- rather than 21-hydroxylase CAH. Diagnosis of 11β-OH CAH is usually confirmed by demonstration of marked elevations of 11-deoxycortisol and 11-deoxycorticosterone (DOC), the substrates of 11β-hydroxylase. Management is similar to that of 21-hydroxylase deficient CAH except that mineralocorticoids need not be replaced.
Virilization in a woman can manifest as clitoral enlargement, increased muscle strength, acne, hirsutism, frontal hair thinning, deepening of the voice, and menstrual disruption due to anovulation.
Doses of 19-nortestosterones required for virilization are 10–20 mg/day, far in excess of that associated with inadvertent contraceptive exposure during pregnancy.
In a letter to the editor by a physician on the topic of virilization in women caused by high dosages of NETA:
Signs that are suggestive of an androgen-secreting tumor in a patient with hirsutism is rapid onset, virilization and palpable abdominal mass.
Primordial mass segregation is non-uniform distribution of masses present at the formation of a cluster. The argument that a star cluster is primordially mass segregated is typically based on a comparison of virilization timescales and the cluster's age. However, several dynamical mechanisms to accelerate virilization compared to two-body interactions have been examined. In star-forming regions, it is often observed that O-type stars are preferentially located in the center of a young cluster.
Adverse side effects include fluid and electrolyte retention, hypercalcaemia, increased bone growth and skeletal weight. In men, additional side priapism, azoospermia, hirsutism, male pattern baldness, acne and oedema. In women, side effects include virilization, amenorrhoea, menstrual irregularities, suppressed lactation, and increased libido. In children, side effects may include virilization symptoms. Metenolone may enhance effects of antidiabetics, ciclosporin, levothyroxine, warfarin. Resistance to the effects of neuromuscular blockers may occur, and metenolone also has the potential to interfere with glucose tolerance and thyroid function tests.
Adrenal glands of female fetuses with CAH begin producing excess testosterone by the 9th week of gestation. The most important aspects of virilization (urogenital closure and phallic urethra) occur between 8 and 12 weeks. Theoretically, if enough glucocorticoid could be supplied to the fetus to reduce adrenal testosterone production by the 9th week, virilization could be prevented and the difficult decision about timing of surgery avoided.
17β-Hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase III deficiency is a rare disorder of sexual development, or intersex condition, affecting testosterone biosynthesis by 17β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase III (17β-HSD III) Which can produce impaired virilization (historically termed male pseudohermaphroditism) of genetically male infants and children and excessive virilization of female adults. It is an autosomal recessive condition and is one of the few disorders of sexual development that can affect the primary and/or secondary sex characteristics of both males and females.
Prenatal virilization of a genetically female fetus can occur when an excessive amount of androgen is produced by the fetal adrenal glands or is present in maternal blood. In the severest form of congenital adrenal hyperplasia, complete masculinization of a genetically female fetus results in an apparently normal baby boy with no palpable testes. More often, the virilization is partial and the genitalia are ambiguous.