Synonyms for vladimir_shchuko or Related words with vladimir_shchuko
Examples of "vladimir_shchuko"
Peretyatkovich, as the youngest member of Neoclassical Revival movement after 1915, had a solid influence on Saint Petersburg architects of his period, securing the leading role of this style together with
and Ivan Fomin.
Isaac Brodsky, Ivan Fomin, Alexey Shchusev,
and other influential artists pleaded in favor of Lanceray, and he was released in August 1935. Freedom spelled bitter dissatisfaction to Lanceray: while he was behind bars, the Academy of Architecture commissioned biographies of Cameron and Zakharov to other writers. He still managed to sign a contract for a biography of Vincenzo Brenna.
Architect Yury Shchuko, author of the 1954 Central Pavilion of the All-Russia Exhibition Centre and a junior architect of the 1931-1932 Bolshoy Dom, was Vladimir Shchuko's first cousin once removed. Yury Shchuko, along with three other contributors, collaborated with
on the 1936 draft of the Soviet pavilion for the 1937 World Expo in Paris. This contest was won by Iofan.
Revival school was most active in Saint Petersburg, less in Moscow and other cities. The style was a common choice for luxury country estates, upper-class apartment and office buildings; at the same time it was practically non-existent in church and government architecture. Neoclassical architects born in the 1870s, who reached their peak activity in 1905-1914 (Ivan Fomin,
, Ivan Zholtovsky), later became leading figures in stalinist architecture of the 1930s and shaped Soviet architectural education system.
In 1917, the building was chosen by Vladimir Lenin as Bolshevik headquarters during the October Revolution. It was Lenin's residence for several months, until the national government was moved to the Moscow Kremlin in March 1918. After that, the Smolny became the headquarters of the local Communist Party apparat, effectively the city hall. In 1927, a monument to Lenin was erected in front of the building, designed by the sculptor Vasily Kozlov and the architects
and Vladimir Gelfreikh.
The international contest was followed by not one, but two more rounds of closed competition. The third contest (March–July 1932) round invited 15 design teams, the fourth (July 1932–February 1933) invited only five. On May 10, 1933, Boris Iofan's draft was declared the winner. A duo of neoclassicist architects,
and Vladimir Gelfreikh, were assigned to Iofan's team, and the design became known as the "Iofan-Schuko-Gelfreikh" draft.
The interaction of the state with the architects would prove to be one of the features of this time. The same building could be declared a formalist blasphemy and then receive the greatest praise the next year, as happened to Ivan Zholtovsky and his Bolshaya Kaluzhskaya in 1949–1950. Authentic styles like Zholtovsky's Renaissance Revival, Ivan Fomin's St. Petersburg Neoclassical Revival and Art Deco adaptation by Alexey Dushkin and
coexisted with imitations and eclectics that became characteristic of that era.
Before 1917, the Russian architectural scene was divided between "Russky Modern" (a local interpretation of Art Nouveau, stronger in Moscow), and Neoclassical Revival (stronger in Saint Petersburg). The Neoclassical school produced mature architects like Alexey Shchusev, Ivan Zholtovsky, Ivan Fomin,
and Alexander Tamanian; by the time of the Revolution they were established professionals, with their own companies, schools and followers. These people would eventually become Stalinism's architectural elders and produce the best examples of the period.
In 1927–1928 Alexander Vesnin, feeling himself responsible for the proliferation of a mediocre "constructive style", abandoned his earlier style demonstrated in the towering hulks of the "Palace of Labor" and "Arcos". The new drafts by the Vesnin brothers decomposed the building into separate volumes linked according to the building's function. The approach, dubbed "pavilion composition", was publicized in the Vesnins' 1928 draft for the Lenin Library. The Vesnins lost both stages of this contest to
Postconstructivism merged closely with Soviet adaptations of Art Deco. Some examples of this style, like the 1934 Lenin Library by
, may be mistaken for "Postconstructivism". In fact, Schuko was a seasoned Neoclassicist and the Library was his attempt to differentiate into "proletarian classic" with Art Deco tools. The situation inside professional community was even more diverse than Khan-Magomedov's picture. Vladimirov's apartment block featured above is usually classified as an Art Deco adaptation, too.
Elektrozavodskaya () is a Moscow Metro station on the Arbatsko-Pokrovskaya Line. It is one of the most spectacular and better-known stations of the system. Built as part of the third stage of the Moscow Metro and opened on 15 May 1944 during World War II, the station is one of the iconic symbols of the system, famous for its architectural decoration which is work of architects
(who died whilst working on the station's project in 1939) and Vladimir Gelfreich, along with participation of his student Igor Rozhin.
In 1923, the decision was made to build the All-Russia Agricultural and Industrial Craft Exhibition. The section for foreign pavilions — from Germany, Italy, and elsewhere — was located on the current MUZEON site. In the middle, young architect Andrei Burov built a soccer stadium, unheard of back then. Vladimir Lenin visited the exhibition during his last trip to Moscow three months before his death. Lenin was driven in a car past pavilions designed by Konstantin Melnikov,
, and Vera Mukhina, before departing for the estate of Gorki, where he died.
Independent architects had to join state projects, switch to bureaucratic jobs (Victor Vesnin) or quit (like Melnikov did). Reconstruction of Moscow project was set up as 10 state architectural workshops, roughly corresponding to the radial sectors of the city. Zholtovsky was invited to lead "Workshop No.1"; like other old architects (Shchusev,
, Ivan Fomin), he fitted perfectly in Stalin’s system. His educational work was in high esteem: in 1935 and 1937 Politbureau appointed him to speak on education at the forthcoming Congress of Architects (this Congress was delayed twice, and each time list of speakers was approved at the very top).
In 1905–1914 Russian architecture passed through a brief but influential period of Neoclassical revival; the trend began with recreation of Empire style of alexandrine period and quickly expanded into a variety of neo-Renaissance, palladian and modernized, yet recognizably classical schools. They were led by architects born in the 1870s, who reached creative peak before World War I, like Ivan Fomin,
and Ivan Zholtovsky. When economy recovered in the 1920s, these architects and their followers continued working in primarily modernist environment; some (Zholtovsky) strictly followed the classical canon, others (Fomin, Schuko, Ilya Golosov) developed their own modernized styles.
Renaissance revival was practiced by Ivan Zholtovsky in Moscow and Marian Lyalevich, Marian Peretiatkovich and
in Saint Petersburg. Their first statements of neo-Renaissance were completed in 1910-1912. Peretiatkovich died prematurely and did not leave a lasting following, while Zholtovsky created his own professional school that persisted from 1918 to his death in 1959. However, in 1905-1914 he completed only a few neo-Renaissance buildings; the bulk of his work of this period belong to pure neoclassicism. On the contrary, amount of neo-Renaissance projects in 1910s Saint Petersburg was large enough to become a lasting trend; works of Schuko and Lyalevich were instantly copied by lesser-known followers. Alexander Benois and Georgy Lukomsky, now disillusioned by superfluous copying of empire style motives, welcomed the "stern tastes of Italian architects."
The Palace of the Soviets (, "Dvorets Sovetov") was a project to construct an administrative center and a congress hall in Moscow, Russian SFSR, Soviet Union (present-day Russian Federation) near the Kremlin, on the site of the demolished Cathedral of Christ the Saviour. The architectural contest for the Palace of the Soviets (1931–1933) was won by Boris Iofan's neoclassical concept, subsequently revised by Iofan,
and Vladimir Gelfreikh into a skyscraper. If built, it would have become the world's tallest structure of its time. Construction started in 1937, and was terminated by the German invasion in 1941. In 1941–1942, its steel frame was disassembled for use in fortifications and bridges. Construction was never resumed. In 1958, the foundations of the Palace were converted into what would become the world's largest open-air swimming pool, the Moskva Pool. The Cathedral was rebuilt in 1995–2000.
Construction of the first stage, designed by
and Vladimir Gelfreikh in 1927–1929, was authorized in 1929 and commenced in 1930. The first stage was largely complete in 1941. In the process, the building acquired the "modernized neoclassicism" exterior features of the Palace of Soviets (co-designed by Shchuko and Gelfreikh), departing from the stern modernism of the 1927 drafts. The last component of Shchuko's plan, a 250-seat reading hall, was opened in 1945; further additions continued until 1960. In 1968 the building reached its capacity, and the library launched construction of a new depository in Khimki, earmarked for storing newspapers, scientific works and low-demand books from the main storage areas. The first stage of Khimki library was complete in 1975.
In 1937, Lissitzky served as the lead decorator for the upcoming All-Union Agricultural Exhibition, reporting to the master planner Vyacheslav Oltarzhevsky but largely independent and highly critical of him. The project was plagued by delays and political interventions. By the end of 1937 the "apparent simplicity" of Lissitzky's artwork aroused the concerns of the political supervisors, and Lissitzky responded: "The simpler the shape, the finer precision and quality of execution required... yet until now [the working crews] are instructed by the foremen (Oltarzhevsky and Korostashevsky), not the authors" (i.e.
, author of the Central Pavilion, and Lissitzky himself). His artwork, as described in 1937 proposals, completely departed from the modernist art of the 1920s in favor of socialist realism. The iconic statue of Stalin in front of the central pavilion was proposed by Lissitzky personally: "this will give the square its head and its face" ().
In 1903 Lanceray,
and Ludwig Shroeter settled on a long survey tour of Pskov and Novgorod regions; "Mir Iskusstva" published "Vandalism in Novgorod and Pskov governorates" ("Вандализм в Новгородской и Псковской губерниях") by Lanceray and Schuko in 1907. He worked as a practical architect in Moscow and as restorator in Saint Petersburg. Soon, however, he quit construction for historical studies of Russian Enlightenment, and co-authored "Tsarskoye Selo in the reigh of Elizabeth", contributing over 200 graphical sheets. He was a regular author of "Starye Gody" magazine that published his 1911 biography of Andreyan Zakharov and 1912-1913 essays on Gatchina Palace and Tsarskoye Selo. Lanceray continued collecting material on neoclassical architects, primarily Brenna, Cameron and Zakharov, until his arrest in 1931.
Pure revival of Empire style was limited to temporary exhibition projects and suburban and country mansions, where abundant land allowed low but wide symmetrical layouts. Rarely, as in the case of Vtorov's mansion, the same approach was reproduced in downtown residences or in public buildings (Museum of Ethnography in Saint Petersburg). Typical Saint Petersburg construction projects of that period already passed the 5-story mark, unheard of in early 19th century, and needed careful adaptation of neoclassical spirit to the new scale. Early attempts of mechanical, superfluous attachment of columns and porticos to ordinary apartment blocks failed; by 1912 the problem was resolved, most notably by
. His "Markov Apartments" suggested two ways of handling the scale: either use of giant order, with pilasters running the whole height of the building, or adaptation of earlier palladian motives; both relied on expensive natural stone finishes and modern structural engineering. The result "combined classical elements in a monumental design that is "neither historical nor modern". Shchuko developed a style appropriate for contemporary urban architecture, one that provided material evidence of the classical values."
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