Synonyms for wittkowski or Related words with wittkowski
Examples of "wittkowski"
was born in the German city of Danzig (present-day Gdańsk, Poland), the second of five children raised by Polish immigrants Joseph and Mathilde
, and grew up in Syracuse, New York where her family had lived since she was about eight.
Erwin-Josef Speckmann, Werner
: Bau und Funktionen des menschlichen Körpers. 18. Ed., Urban & Schwarzenberg, München 1994; 20. Auflage: Elsevier/Urban & Fischer, München 2004.
She retired around 1937 to write and translate music and to try her hand as a novelist.
died in 1977, aged 95, at Madison, New Jersey and was interred at the Woodlawn National Cemetery in Elmira, New York.
KM, Liu X. (2002/2004) proposed a modification to the TDT that can be more powerful under some alternatives, although the asymptotic properties under the null hypothesis are equivalent.
returned to Berlin in June 1946. The region surrounding the city was now administered as the Soviet occupation zone, although the contentious creation of the Socialist Unity Party (""Sozialistische Einheitspartei Deutschlands"" / SED) a couple of months earlier had already created a necessary precondition for its relaunch in October 1949 as a new kind of one-party dictatorship, the German Democratic Republic (East Germany).
joined the SED in 1946. Jürgen Kuczynski was already back in town, and together they founded a weekly newspaper called "Die Wirtschaft" (""The Economy""). She also took charge of the economics section of Neues Deutschland, the newly established mass-circulation daily newspaper of the recently established Socialist Unity Party. Sources nevertheless indicate that
objected to being given work as a journalist because she wished to contribute more directly to rebuilding the country.
was transferred to the , an office she held till 1954. This was a demotion, attributed by one source to an emulation by Walter Ulbricht of Stalin's 1951 purge of "zionist conspirators". Others, referring to her time in England, are content to point out that during this time "those who had emigrated to the West were more likely to be considered as unreliable comrades". Whatever the reason for her removal from the German Economic Commission, it does appear that
was respected for her formidable intellect, which unlike others she was sometimes willing to deploy in discussions involving Walter Ulbricht, the country's leader.
As Marta Wittkowska, she sang for Metropolitan Opera House in Philadelphia, the Met in Manhattan and opera companies in St. Louis, Syracuse, Chicago, Cincinnati and Detroit. In 1913
returned to the Covent Garden Theatre to play the alternate lead in the Raymond Rôze opera "Joan of Arc" and the Wagnerian roles Isolde and Ortrude.
During her time with the Cincinnati Zoo Opera,
opened a studio in 1930 at the Hotel Biltmore in Troy, Ohio, teaching voice culture, opera and opera chorus, and a few years later formed with her husband the Columbus Civic Opera Company at Columbus, Ohio.
(18 August 1910 - 20 October 1974) was a German economist and politician (KPD / SED). Between 1961 and 1967 she served as deputy chair of the East German Council of Ministers, the only woman ever to hold this post. Between 1974 and 1990 she served as President of the East German National Bank.
Hillous Butrum died in his Nashville home about two weeks after the death of his wife Phyllis (Frost) Butrum. His funeral was held in Goodlettsville, Tennessee and was attended by notable music industry figures including Hal Bynum, Merle Kilgore, Bobby Tomberlin, Robbie
, Tim Jones, and Don Helms. He was interred in the Underwood Cemetery in his hometown of Lafayette.
Between 1956 and 1958
found herself increasingly out of line with the leadership, both because of differences over aspects of economic policy and because she sought to open a spirit of wider debate. In a speech delivered on 22 March 1956 to the Central Committee plenum she criticised Ulbricht over his failure to brief Central Committee members on the momentous events at the Soviet 20th Party Congress in Moscow the previous month: she urged a little more openness within the East German Central Committee.
advocated greater priority be given to profitability and the needs of the population. At the Central Committee plenum in November 1956 she called for greater decentralisation of economic decision making. Addressing the Central Committee plenum in November 1956, she criticised the "bureaucratic" actions of many functionaries, which she characterised as discrediting the "party and the government". She also appealed for a less confrontational policy with socialists in the German Federal Republic, where a court imposed ban on the Communist Party in August 1956 failed to trigger significant protests by West German workers. There were two German states but there was only one German working class.
might have taken a lead within the Central Committee in criticising aspects of economic policy, but she was not a lone voice. Inside the Central Committee, Karl Schirdewan and Ernst Wollweber were voicing similar sentiments. Other prominent critics of the party line were , and .
Lawton Walter "Whitey" Witt (born "Ladislaw Waldemar
", September 28, 1895 – July 14, 1988) was a professional baseball player. He played all or part of ten seasons in Major League Baseball for the Philadelphia Athletics, New York Yankees, and Brooklyn Robins. In his career, he hit 18 home runs and had 302 RBI. He was the last surviving person to have played on the 1923 New York Yankees team, the first year the Yankees won the World Series.
Two years earlier,
had been given the opportunity to sing in front of the noted contralto Ernestine Schumann-Heink, at the time in Syracuse to perform at a concert. Heink told her that her voice was one of the most promising she had ever heard, and suggested that she study Wagnerian operas at Bayreuth and participate in their annual festival to gain the training and experience not yet available in America; a path that at the time was beyond Wittkowski's means.
was born in Posen. Her father was a businessman: her mother was a pianist. She attended school in Posen till 1926, when the family moved to Berlin. Here, between 1929 and 1932, she studied . Till 1931 she was active in the Zionist Movement, after which, following "discussions with leftist friends" her political energies were increasingly focused on the Communist Party, which she joined in September 1932.
After Stalin died, in March 1953, the East German party leadership became slightly less nervous, and in 1954 she was reinstated as deputy president of what had now become the , which gave her significant influence over national economic policy. In April 1954
was also elected a member of the powerful Party Central Committee, which under the Leninist power structure employed in East Germany was the real focus of political power. She also sat as a member of the national parliament (""Volkskammer"") between 1952 and 1958, and again between 1963 and 1967.
She was quickly restored to the vice-presidency, although now there was more than one vice-president so that her relative stature within the body was diminished. A few years later, after 1961, the economic reforms branded as the "New Economic System", reflecting a modest loosening of centralised control across the entire "Eastern Bloc" seemed to acknowledge concerns that had been expressed by
three years before. She herself remained at this point outside the Party Central Committee Politburo, but her principal interlocutor within it was who had been a pupil of her old friend and literary collaborator, Jürgen Kuczynski. In February 1961 she resigned from the for the last time and took up a post as a deputy chair of the Council of Ministers, where her departmental responsibilities covered Trade, Supply, and Agriculture. Over the years there were many deputy chairmen of the Council of Ministers, but
was the only woman ever to be numbered among them. She held this post till July 1967. Meanwhile, in 1963 she was readmitted to the Party Central Committee.
saw in the Social Democratic Party (SPD) in West Germany a potential ally in support of workers and in opposition to the Adenauer régime, Ulbricht saw the western SPD, even before publication in 1959 of the Godesberg Program, as irredeemably counter-revolutionary. The idea that one might "do business" with them was a repudiation of valued Stalinist dogma. More generally, he was underwhelmed by her economic and other criticisms. Her advocacy of "socialist self-management" led to a charge of "Managerism". In February 1958 the Central Committee plenum endorsed the orthodox line advocated by General Secretary Ulbricht:
underwent a "temporary demotion". (For the other critics named in the previous paragraph demotion was permanent) She was removed from her deputy presidency of the and her name was no longer included on the party list for the Volkskammer election that year. She was also resigned from the Central Committee, although her name now appeared on the list of candidates for Central Committee membership, an indulgence not afforded to comrades Schirdewan and Wollweber.
Two weeks prior to the disappearance of Keimes, Haarmann had returned to his Neue Straße apartment, having served six months in a labour camp for several acts of theft he had committed in August 1921. Upon his return, Haarmann discovered that Grans had stolen much of his personal property and fraudulently obtained and spent his military pension while he had been incarcerated. This resulted in a violent argument between the two men, culminating in Haarmann evicting Grans. Shortly thereafter, Grans and a criminal acquaintance named Hugo
had returned to and further ransacked the apartment. It is likely Haarmann committed this murder in an attempt to frame Grans in reprisal for the theft of his property and pension.
In January 1933 the political backdrop was transformed when the Nazi Party took power and converted Germany into a one-party dictatorship. Political activity - except in support of the Nazi Party - became illegal. At the end of February the Reichstag fire was instantly blamed on the Communists, and in March 1933 those identified as Communists began to be arrested. During 1933 Margarete
emigrated to Switzerland, where she enrolled at Basel University and worked on her doctorate dissertation. She passed the oral element of her doctoral exam, for which she was supervised by and Herman Schmalenbach, in February 1934, for work concerning the relationships between the big banks in Berlin and German industry. Some sources indicate that she received her doctorate in 1934.
In November 1938, a few days after the "Kristallnacht" pogroms across the border,
was arrested in Zürich and expelled from the country for her "illegal political activities". She lived - now illegally - in Basel for another six months, after which, in April 1939, she succeeded in escaping to England, where her literary collaborator Jürgen Kuczynski had been based since 1936. Sources are largely silent over her activities in England during the war years. Unlike many political refugees from Nazi Germany, there is no record of her having been interned as an enemy alien by the English when war broke out, which may well reflect her work with Kuczynski who had excellent connections with elements of the British establishment. It is on record that until 1943 she worked for the Comintern with Harry Pollitt, a leading member of the Communist Party. She appears to have been considered a leader among the exiled German communists in England.
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