Synonyms for xerostomia or Related words with xerostomia
Examples of "xerostomia"
However, sometimes the clinical findings do not correlate with the symptoms experienced. E.g., a person with signs of hyposalivation may not complain of
. Conversely a person who reports experiencing
may not show signs of reduced salivary secretions (subjective
). In the latter scenario, there are often other oral symptoms suggestive of oral dysesthesia ("burning mouth syndrome"). Some symptoms outside the mouth may occur together with
. These include:
Aside from physiologic causes of
, iatrogenic effects of medications are the most common cause. A medication which is known to cause
may be termed "xerogenic". Over 500 medications produce
as a side effect (see table). Sixty-three percent of the top 200 most commonly prescribed drugs in the United States are xerogenic. The likelihood of
increases in relation to the total number of medications taken, whether the individual medications are xerogenic or not. The sensation of dryness usually starts shortly after starting the offending medication or after increasing the dose. Anticholinergic, sympathomimetic, or diuretic drugs are usually responsible.
In placebo-controlled studies, the most commonly observed side effects were headache,
(dry mouth), nausea, dizziness, and insomnia.
Muscarinic agonists are used as drugs in treating glaucoma, postoperative ileus, congenital megacolon, urinary retention and
The differential of hyposalivation significantly overlaps with that of
. A reduction in saliva production to about 50% of the normal unstimulated level will usually result in the sensation of dry mouth. Altered saliva composition may also be responsible for
The successful treatment of
is difficult to achieve and often unsatisfactory. This involves finding any correctable cause and removing it if possible, but in many cases it is not possible to correct the
itself, and treatment is symptomatic, and also focuses on preventing tooth decay through improving oral hygiene. Where the symptom is caused by hyposalivation secondary to underlying chronic disease,
can be considered permanent or even progressive. The management of salivary gland dysfunction may involve the use of saliva substitutes and/or saliva stimulants:
The most common side effect seen is constipation (2-3%). Less commonly reported side effects (<0.5%) include flatulence, headache, hypophosphatemia,
(dry mouth), and bezoar formation.
Cyclacel Pharmaceuticals' ALIGN Pharmaceuticals subsidiary markets directly in the U.S. Xclair Cream for radiation dermatitis, Numoisyn® Liquid and Numoisyn® Lozenges for
Salivary gland hypoplasia is relative underdevelopement of the Salivary glands. Salivary gland hypoplasia tends to produce
(dry mouth), with all the associated problems this brings.
has been used as a test to detect lies, which relied on emotional inhibition of salivary secretions to indicate possible incrimination.
Both the quantity and quality of saliva are important oral defenses against candida. Decreased salivary flow rate or a change in the composition of saliva, collectively termed salivary hypofunction or hyposalivation is an important predisposing factor.
is frequently listed as a cause of candidiasis, but
can be subjective or objective, i.e., a symptom present with or without actual changes in the saliva consistency or flow rate.
is the subjective feeling of oral dryness, which is often (but not always) associated with hypofunction of the salivary glands. The term is derived from the Greek words ξηρός ("xeros") meaning "dry" and στόμα ("stoma") meaning "mouth".
Human immunodeficiency virus salivary gland disease (abbreviated to HIV-SGD, and also termed HIV-associated salivary gland disease), is swelling of the salivary glands and/or
in individuals infected with human immunodeficiency virus.
Sodium fluoride/malic acid (trade name Xerodent) is a type of mouthwash consisting of the teeth-strengthening sodium fluoride and the saliva stimulant malic acid. It is used in
Less common side-effects include red skin (erythema), dry skin, damaged fingernails, a dry mouth (
), water retention, and sexual impotence. Some medications can trigger allergic or pseudoallergic reactions.
Pilocarpine stimulates the secretion of large amounts of saliva and sweat. It is used to treat dry mouth (
), particularly in Sjögren's syndrome, but also as a side effect of radiation therapy for head and neck cancer.
is a very common symptom. A conservative estimate of prevalence is about 20% in the general population, with increased prevalences in females (up to 30%) and the elderly (up to 50%).
Hyposalivation is a clinical diagnosis that is made based on the history and examination, but reduced salivary flow rates have been given objective definitions. Salivary gland hypofunction has been defined as any objectively demonstrable reduction in whole and/or individual gland flow rates. An unstimulated whole saliva flow rate in a normal person is 0.3–0.4 ml per minute, and below 0.1 ml per minute is significantly abnormal. A stimulated saliva flow rate less than 0.5 ml per gland in 5 minutes or less than 1 ml per gland in 10 minutes is decreased. The term subjective
is sometimes used to describe the symptom in the absence of any detectable abnormality or cause.
may also result from a change in composition of saliva (from serous to mucous). Salivary gland dysfunction is an umbrella term for the presence of either
or salivary gland hypofunction.
Normally, saliva is slightly acidic and has a pH less than 7, but it can vary between 6 and 8. The pH inside the mouth depends on the salival flow rate because the higher the flow rate of saliva the more salival bicarbonates are present. Bicarbonates in the saliva raise the pH inside the mouth. When there is no or low saliva flow, also known as
, the pH inside the mouth is around 6. When salival flow rate is high the pH is about 8. During a concert, if a musician is suffering from
, also known as dry mouth, the saliva pH is expected to be acidic.
Sialogogues can be used in the treatment of
(the subjective feeling of having a dry mouth), to stimulate any functioning salivary gland tissue to produce more saliva. Saliva has a bactericidal effect, so when low levels of it are secreted, the risk of caries increases. Not only this, but fungal infections such as oral candidosis also can be a consequence of low salivary flow rates. The buffer effect of saliva is also important, neutralising acids that cause tooth enamel demineralisation. The following are used in dentistry to treat
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