Synonyms for ymrs or Related words with ymrs
Examples of "ymrs"
While the CMRS has not been validated in other languages, the CBCL,
, GBI, and KSADS all have. However, the CMRS has been tested and translated into Spanish.
The CMRS was developed as a shorter, reliable, and valid parent-report screening instrument for mania. It was developed from the Young Mania Rating Scale (
), another popular mania rating scale in children. The
was derived from the Parent-Young Mania Rating Scale (P-
). This scale, developed from the
, was created for use with adult inpatients. The items of the P-
did not include the updated DSM-IV criteria for adolescent Bipolar Disorder, and it includes several items with poor factor loadings. Furthermore, the content is not developmentally appropriate for children, as many of the items require insight or appearance, which are irrelevant to young children. Another promising measure is the GBI as it has good psychometric properties. However, the GBI is lengthy and complicated and requires the child to have at least a 7th-grade reading ability. One of the most widely used measures of mania symptoms is the Kiddie Schedule for Affective Disorders and Schizophrenia mania section. However, this measure is extremely extensive and requires much clinical training to administer.
A similar scale was later developed to allow clinicians to interview parents about their children's symptoms, in order to ascertain a better diagnosis of mania in children. This parent version (P-
) can be completed by a parent or a teacher to determine whether a child should receive further evaluation from a psychologist or psychiatrist. Clinical studies have demonstrated the reliability and validity of the parent version of the scale, which has been found to provide “clinically meaningful information about mood disorders in youth." The P-
does succeed in identifying most cases of childhood bipolar disorder, and it has an extremely high false positive rate.
The Young Mania Rating Scale (
), developed by Vincent E Ziegler and popularized by Robert Young, is an eleven-item multiple choice diagnostic questionnaire which psychiatrists use to measure the severity of manic episodes in children and young adults. The scale was originally developed for use in the evaluation of adult patients with bipolar disorder, but has since been modified for use in pediatric patients.
A 1996 randomized controlled trial, which involved 43 men, did not find an increase in the occurrence of angry behavior during 10 weeks of administration of testosterone enanthate at 600 mg/week, but this study screened out subjects that had previously abused steroids or had any psychiatric antecedents. A trial conducted in 2000 using testosterone cypionate at 600 mg/week found that treatment significantly increased manic scores on the
, and aggressive responses on several scales. The drug response was highly variable. However: 84% of subjects exhibited minimal psychiatric effects, 12% became mildly hypomanic, and 4% (2 subjects) became markedly hypomanic. The mechanism of these variable reactions could not be explained by demographic, psychological, laboratory, or physiological measures.
Historically, effective rating and diagnosis of mania has been limited. Though many mania scales have been tested on adult populations, the Young Mania Rating Scale (
) – which was the basis for the child version (CMRS) - is the only adult scale that has also been studied for validity and reliability in prepubertal children. Previous attempts include the Beigel Scale/Manic State Rating Scale (MSRS) and the Patterson Scale, which used nurse and clinician reports to rate levels of mania. Neither scale effectively and consistently captured levels of mania in patients. Other measures of pediatric mania are generally limited because they are completed by the clinician, introducing potential for bias, and because they lack the depth necessary to differentiate between patient-specific ways in which symptoms are presented. The CMRS Parent and Teacher versions attempt to address some of the limitations by including a checklist that can gather information about behavior at home, school, and other settings, rather than focusing only on what a clinician could directly observe. One study examined the accuracy of a shortened version of the CMRS-P, which included only 10 items, and found that its accuracy was similar to the full scale.
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