Synonyms for yok_utian or Related words with yok_utian

otomanguean              uto_aztecan              macro_chibchan              plateau_penutian              utian              hokan              totozoquean              yokutsan              misumalpan              takic              macro_siouan              chibchan              penutian              kiowa_tanoan              austric              maipuran              zaparoan              dené_caucasian              yanomaman              athabaskan_eyak_tlingit              uralic_yukaghir              popolocan              siangic              wakashan              oto_manguean              na_dené              yukaghir_languages              chukotko_kamchatkan              gunwinyguan              siouan_catawban              na_dene_languages              oto_pamean              saliban              tanoan              adelaar_muysken              mixtecan              surmic              lencan              aztec_tanoan              algic              mixe_zoque              na_dene              eskimo_aleut              guajiboan              maiduan              mixe_zoquean              yeniseian              maipurean              tsimshianic              kazukuru             



Examples of "yok_utian"
While Yok-Utian can be included in the larger Penutian proposal, the Yok-Utian proposal does not directly support Penutian.
Yok-Utian (also Hotian) is a proposed language family of California. It consists of the Yokutsan and Utian families.
Karkin is an Ohlone/Costanoan language, in the Utian language family, which is a Yok-Utian language, in the Penutian language family.
While connections between Yokutsan and Utian languages were noticed through attempts to reconstruct their proto-languages in 1986, it was not until 1991 that Yok-Utian was proposed and named by Geoffrey Gamble. Yok-Utian has been further supported by Catherine Callaghan, who has argued for the family’s existence on the basis of lexical, morphological, and phonological similarities between the reconstructed proto-languages. However, she and others have noted that while it is compelling, the evidence presented is not conclusive.
One component of the evidence offered for Yok-Utian is that of sound correspondences in the reconstructed proto-languages for Yokuts and the Utian family, such as the sample below.
California Penutian and Takelma–Kalapuyan ("Takelman") are no longer accepted as valid nodes by many Penutian researchers. However, Plateau Penutian, Oregon Coast Penutian, and Yok-Utian are increasingly supported. Scott DeLancey suggests the following relationships within and among language families typically assigned to the Penutian phylum:
The Ohlone languages, also known as Costanoan, are a small family of languages of the San Francisco Bay Area spoken by the Ohlone people. Along with the Miwok languages, they are members of the Utian language family. The most recent work suggests that Ohlone, Miwok, and Yokuts are branches of a Yok-Utian language family.
Based on archeological calculations, the Yok-Utian family may be as old as Indo-European, and the Klamath Tribes appear to have lived in their current location for >7000 years. Thus the time depth of the proposed Inland Penutian branch alone approaches the limits of what many think traditional historical reconstruction can determine; this is sometimes used as an argument against the Penutian hypothesis.
The Ohlone language family is commonly called "Costanoan", sometimes "Ohlone". Costanoan is a member of the hypothetical Penutian language phylum, and (along with the Miwok languages) the Utian language family. The most recent work suggests that Costanoan, Miwok, and Yokuts may all be sub-families within a single Yok-Utian language family.
According to the proposal, the Yok-Utian proto-language was spoken by a group originating in the Great Basin at least as early as 4500 BC. There was a division around 2500 BC, as the group which began speaking Proto-Utian migrated from the Great Basin into California. Proto-Miwok began to emerge in the northern Bay Area between 1000 and 500 BC, and began to spread west and south. Proto-Costanoan emerged in the eastern Bay Area, splitting from the larger Utian group sometime after 1500 BC, if not earlier. The language that remained in the Great Basin turned into proto-Yokuts before gradually splitting into the various languages of the Yokutsan family and only later began to migrate into California. However, Scott DeLancey and Victor Golla have proposed that the language distribution could be the result of a single migration of Yok-Utian speakers who later spread out throughout California.
The Yokutsan family is key member family in the proposed Penutian stock. Some linguists consider most relationships within Penutian to be undemonstrated (cf. Campbell 1997). Others consider a genetic relationship between Yokutsan, Utian, Maiduan, Wintuan, and a number of Oregon languages within Penutian to be definite (cf. Delancy and Golla 1997). Regardless of higher-order disagreement, Callaghan (1997) provides strong evidence uniting Yokutsan and Utian as sub-families within a single "Yok-Utian" language family.
Utian (also Miwok–Costanoan, previously Mutsun) is a family of indigenous languages spoken in the central and north portion of California, United States. The Miwok and Ohlone peoples both spoke languages of the Utian language family. It has recently been argued that the Utian languages and Yokuts languages are sub-families of the Yok-Utian language family (Callaghan 1997, 2001; Golla 2007:76-77). Utian and Yokutsan have traditionally been considered part of the Penutian language phylum (Goddard 1996:313-319; Mithun 1999; Shipley 1978:82-85).
The unique nature of the far northern Yokuts language spoken by Pinart's "Colovomnes" and "Tammukamnes" was first delineated in 1959. Recently Golla, who has introduced the term "Delta Yokuts" for the language, wrote that Ken Whistler "has proposed that the vocabulary distinctive of some of the Delta Yokuts dialects may reflect substratal influence from pre-proto-Yokuts or from an extinct Yok-Utian language." Norval Smith has recently analyzed a small previously-unpublished "Tamukan" word list that supports the conclusion that the Tamcan people spoke the Delta Yokuts language.
Some of the more recently proposed subgroupings of Penutian have been convincingly demonstrated. The Miwokan and the Costanoan languages have been grouped into an Utian language family by Catherine Callaghan. Callaghan has more recently provided evidence supporting a grouping of Utian and Yokutsan into a Yok-Utian family. There also seems to be convincing evidence for the Plateau Penutian grouping (originally named "Shahapwailutan" by J. N. B. Hewitt and John Wesley Powell in 1894) which would consist of Klamath–Modoc, Molala, and the Sahaptian languages (Nez Percé and Sahaptin).
The term "Delta Yokuts" has recently been introduced in lieu of the longer "Far Northern Valley Yokuts" for the language spoken by the people in the present Stockton and Modesto vicinities of San Joaquin and Stanislaus counties, California, prior to their removal to Mission San Jose between 1810 and 1827. Of interest, Delta Yokuts contains a large number of words with no cognates in any of the other Yokuts languages, or for that matter in the adjacent Utian languages, although its syntax is typically Northern Valley Yokuts (Kroeber 1959:15-17). This anomaly has led Whistler (cited by Golla 2007:76) to suggest, "The vocabulary distinctive of some of the Delta Yokuts dialects may reflect substratal influence from pre-proto-Yokuts or from an extinct Yok-Utian language." Golla (2007:77) suggests that a "pre-proto-Yokuts" homeland was in the Great Basin, citing a rich plant and animal vocabulary for a dry environment and a close connection between Yokuts basketry styles and those of prehistoric central Nevada.