Synonyms for zijpe_polder or Related words with zijpe_polder

luyghem              jisr_ed_damieh              strongpoints              ypres_comines_canal              messines_ridge              mysunde              steenstraat              vaudesincourt              ginchy              matzmed              frégicourt              oosttaverne_line              autre_eglise              strongpoint              mafid_jozele              outflanked              entrenchments              inverness_copse              tal_kurdi              ieperlee              trônes_wood              el_haud              outworks              hardecourt              pargny_filain              dyle              tripsrath              cluilian              mouquet_farm              falfemont_farm              lightly_defended              hunghae              yser              sceleidima              flesquières              noyon_salient              schipdonk              yperlee              khurbet_hadrah              schwaben_redoubt              kusseima              chipilly              outflank              hornwork              le_transloy              scheldt              heldsberg              sangars              mounted_rifles_brigade              artillery_emplacements             



Examples of "zijpe_polder"
After the battle Russian and British reinforcements arrived in Den Helder and the Anglo-Russian forces soon amounted to 40,000 men. The Duke of York, having assumed supreme command of the Anglo-Russian expeditionary force, decided to exploit this numerical superiority. He made an attempt to break out of his bridgehead in the "Zijpe" polder on 19 September. This resulted in the Battle of Bergen (1799) which, though ending in a tactical draw, failed to attain the British objectives. Only the following October did he manage to force a Franco-Batavian retreat in the Battle of Alkmaar (1799). A few days later, at the Battle of Castricum the Franco-Batavian forces prevailed again and York had to withdraw to the "Zijpe" polder. His dire position then forced him to sue for an honorable capitulation in the form of the Convention of Alkmaar.
After the Battle of Callantsoog General Herman Willem Daendels with the 1st Batavian Division had fallen back all the way to the Schermer polder, as he deemed the "Zijpe" polder indefensible, because the British could easily perform another amphibious landing at the North-Sea dike near the village of Petten behind him. This left the "Zijpe" polder (a former marsh that had been transformed into rich farmland by embanking during the 16th century) open to the British. The "Zijpe" polder formed a natural redoubt, because of its high southern dike which had (as usual with Dutch polders) a deep circular drainage canal running along it, which acted as a kind of moat. The dike was high enough to afford a view a long way across all avenues of approach. In addition, it was not straight, but at intervals had circular and angular projections, somewhat like a "trace italienne" of old, which gave the defenders an opportunity to lay enfilade fire, if necessary. Abercromby took advantage from these natural properties of the terrain, by erecting artillery positions and earthworks at strategic points.
His dispositions were anchored on the right on the subsidiary dike which runs parallel with the sea dike at Petten. Then they ran east along the dike of the "Zijpe" polder, with reinforcements at the villages of Krabbendam, Eenigenburg, and Sint Maarten, and finally at the "Oude Sluys" on the coast of (then) the Zuyder Zee (the Wieringermeer polder did not yet exist in those days). The villages in front of this line, like Schagen were occupied as outposts.
Brune's plan of battle was simple: he would have the Batavian divisions attack the villages of Eenigenburg and Krabbendam, as these commanded two roads that led into the "Zijpe" polder and hence two of the few points of ingress. The main role would be performed by the French division of Vandamme, who would attempt to turn Abercromby's right flank by advancing along the subsidiary dike near Petten. The plan can therefore be characterised as an attempt at "single envelopment."
The French attack on the left wing met with no more success. The French advanced along the sea dike and the parallel subsidiary dike near Petten. At the head of these dikes Abercromby had built a sconce that was defended by two brigades of Foot. Nevertheless, French grenadiers managed to penetrate as far as the dike of the "Zijpe" polder, but the ring canal here also proved too much of an obstacle. Many French soldiers drowned while they valiantly tried to cross this deep watercourse. One of the casualties was the French general David. When four British gunboats, manoeuvring closely inshore, started to fire on his flank, Vandamme fell back to his starting positions.
Though on the night of 6 October the two armies were back in their starting positions (though the outposts in Bakkum and Limmen remained in British hands), and the Anglo-Russian losses had not been devastating (though they were about double the Franco-Batavian losses), the Duke of York now convened a council of war with his lieutenants-general. The outcome of this conference was that the Anglo-Russian army withdrew completely to the original bridgehead of the "Zijpe" polder, relinquishing all terrain that had been gained since 19 September. The cities of Hoorn, Enkhuizen and Medemblik were also evacuated and the following Batavian troops could only just prevent the burning of the warehouses with naval stores in those cities by the British. The retreat was executed in such haste that two field hospitals full of British wounded were left in Alkmaar, together with 400 women and children of soldiers.
The British prevailed at the Battle of Krabbendam near Alkmaar on 10 September, where the Batavians and French were routed. This defeat was partly due to sloppy staffwork that allocated one narrow road to the columns of both Batavian divisions that were supposed to converge on the hamlet of Krabbendam. This hamlet sat astride one of the few entry roads to the "Zijpe" polder in which Abercromby had set up an armed camp. The polder formed a natural redoubt with its dike acting as a rampart and its circular drainage canal as a moat. The straight and narrow road through Krabbendam formed one of the few easy entries, but it was easily defensible also. The original plan had this entry point attacked by both Batavian divisions, but because Daendels' division was forced to take a more easterly route, only the division of Dumonceau was brought to bear. This division could not be fully deployed due to the nature of the terrain and the Batavian forces were therefore again fed piecemeal into the battle. They were unable to prevail over the valiant defence of the British 20th Foot. Elsewhere, the French division of General Vandamme was likewise unable to overcome the obstacles of the canal and the dike behind it, that protected the British troops. Vandamme therefore failed to turn Abercromby's right flank as planned.
On the night of the battle Daendels fell back on the nearby "Zijpe" polder where he occupied a defensive line. In the next few days he withdrew even further south, as he feared another amphibious landing near Petten in his rear, that would have placed him between two British forces. Such a landing would have exposed Alkmaar and points South to an easy British advance, too. At first he seems to have considered retreating all the way to the line Purmerend-Monnikendam, but in the event he took up a defensive position in the Schermer polder near Alkmaar. Later historians have held this retreat against him (as they did the abandonment of the "fortress" of Den Helder). General Krayenhoff points out, however, that the abandonment of Den Helder, though deplorable in its effects, was probably unavoidable. The formidable fortress of "Kijkduin", that Napoleon Bonaparte had built after 1810, and that was so tenaciously defended against the Dutch by Admiral Carel Hendrik Ver Huell in 1814, did not exist as yet. Daendels's abandonment of the "Zijpe" seems more questionable, but only because the British in the event did not perform the obvious landing at Petten, of which they should have been fully capable. An important consideration was also, that the Batavians had exhausted their ammunition during the battle. They were for the moment unable to engage in a new battle for that reason.
For a few days the British were riding high, apparently having gained control of the greater part of the North-Holland peninsula, including its major cities. However, large parts of that area, including the rich farmland of the Schermer, Beemster, and Purmer polders had been flooded by the Batavian army. The Anglo-Russians were therefore denied provisions from those areas and still had to be supplied by sea.The advance had also appreciably lengthened the supply lines from their base at Den Helder. The appalling state of the roads, due to the bad weather made supply increasingly difficult. The Duke of York was therefore forced to press his offensive toward Haarlem, the more so as the French received reinforcements from Belgium. At the same time, an increasing number of sick depleted the Anglo-Russian ranks. The Duke therefore started an armed reconnaissance in force on 6 October, which through Russian impetuosity degenerated into the Battle of Castricum. This battle the Anglo-Russians arguably lost and the worsening strategic situation forced the York to make a strategic withdrawal all the way to his original bridgehead at the "Zijpe" polder. After agreeing to an honorable capitulation in the form of the Convention of Alkmaar the expeditionary forces evacuated the peninsula by 19 November 1799.
The following negotiations were short. Brune at the behest of the Batavian government at first demanded the return of the captured Batavian squadron. The Duke of York countered with a threat to breach the dike near Petten, thereby inundating the countryside around the "Zijpe" polder. Though General Krayenhoff was not impressed by this threat (after all, he had spent the previous weeks flooding most of the peninsula himself, and knew that the process could be reversed without too much difficulty) and so advised Brune, the latter was more easily impressed (or feigned this; Krayenhoff also darkly mentions a gift of a number of "magnificent horses" by the Duke to Brune as a possible deal-clincher) and soon agreed to a convention that was very favourable to the Anglo-Russians. In this Convention of Alkmaar that was signed on 18 October no more mention was made of the return of the ships. The Anglo-Russian troops and the Orangist mutineers were granted an undisturbed evacuation, which had to be completed before 1 December. There would be an exchange of 8,000 prisoners of war, including Batavian seamen, that had been captured at the Battle of Camperdown (Admiral De Winter, who had been paroled earlier, was specifically included). The British promised to return the fortresses at Den Helder with their guns in good order. Except for the return of their prisoners of war, the Batavians thought they had got the worst of this exchange, but they were powerless to get a better deal.