Synonyms for zongxi or Related words with zongxi
Examples of "zongxi"
He is often regarded as the forerunner of Huang
, Gu Yanwu and Wang Fuzhi.
At the time of his death, Huang
left behind an uncompleted survey of the Song and Yuan dynasties.
Along with Wang Fuzhi and Huang
, Gu was named as one of the most outstanding Confucian scholars of the late Ming and early Qing Dynasty.
(, September 24, 1610 – August 12, 1695), courtesy name Taichong (太冲), was a Chinese naturalist, political theorist, philosopher, and soldier during the latter part of the Ming dynasty into the early part the Qing.
became a licentiate in 1623 at the age of 14, and in the same year followed his father to Beijing, where his father held a post as a censor. The struggle between the Donglin faction and the eunuchs was reaching a climax during this period, and as a result the elder Huang was dismissed from office in 1625 and the two returned home. Soon after, Huang
was married to Ye Baolin. When Huang Zunsu was traveling in custody to Beijing in 1626, he introduced his son to Liu Zongzhou, a noted philosopher of the Wang Yangming school. Huang
then became a devoted disciple of Liu and a proponent of the Wang Yangming school.
Yuyao also produced many famous scholars in the history, for example, Yan Zi-Ling in Han Dynasty, Yu Fan in Three Kingdoms Period, Yu Xi in Jin Dynasty, Yu Shinan in Sui Dynasty and Tang Dynasty, Wang Yangming, Zhu Shunshui and Huang
in Ming Dynasty. Wang Yangming and Huang
were ranked among China’s top 10 ideologists. Yuyao was then named as “the Most Famous County”and “the Famous State on Literature”. During the Anti-Japanese War, Yuyao was one of China’s 19 bases against Japanese invaders, and was the center of anti-Japanese bases of eastern Zhejiang province.
Stanley Henning proposes that the "Epitaph"'s identification of the internal martial arts with the Taoism indigenous to China and its identification of the external martial arts with the foreign Buddhism of Shaolin—and the Manchu Qing Dynasty to which Huang
was opposed—may have been an act of political defiance rather than one of technical classification.
Stanley Henning proposes that the "Epitaph"s identification of the internal martial arts with the Taoism indigenous to China and of the external martial arts with the foreign Buddhism of Shaolin—and the Manchu Qing Dynasty to which Huang
was opposed—was an act of political defiance rather than one of technical classification.
Some of the most important first generation of Qing thinkers were Ming loyalists, at least in their hearts, including Gu Yanwu, Huang
, and Fang Yizhi. Partly in reaction to the presumed laxity and excess of the late Ming, they turned to Kaozheng, or evidential learning, which emphasized careful textual study and critical thinking.
Zhejiang Province is one of the smallest provinces (both in population and area) in China but quite well known for its academic prosperity and scholars. The province has produced a large number of distinguished scientists. In ancient time, such as Wang Chong of Han Dynasty, Shen Kuo of Song Dynasty, Huang
of Ming and Qing Dynasties from Zhejiang reached research climaxes of natural sciences in their own eras, however, this item would only focus on those modern scientists from Zhejiang.
The term "neijia" and the distinction between internal and external martial arts first appears in Huang Zongxi's 1669 "Epitaph for Wang Zhengnan". Stanley Henning proposes that the "Epitaph"'s identification of the internal martial arts with the Taoism indigenous to China and of the external martial arts with the foreign Buddhism of Shaolin—and the Manchu Qing Dynasty to which Huang
was opposed—was an act of political defiance rather than one of technical classification.
Huang Zunsu was put to death in 1626. When a new emperor ascended the throne two years later, Huang
set off for the capital to protest the execution of his father. Even before he arrived, however, the eunuch faction was destroyed and those who died under it were bestowed with honors. Still, Huang engaged in daring acts of vengeance in the capital, gaining the respect of many. In accordance with his father's last wishes, he in 1631 devoted himself to studying Chinese history. In 1633, Huang completed the Shilu, or "Veritable Records" of the first thirteen reigns of the Ming Dynasty.
A native of Wenzhou, Zhejiang, he was the most famous figure of the Yongjia School, a neo-Confucianism School composed mostly of philosophers from Wenzhou Prefecture in Zhejiang province. In contrast to other scholars in the same period like Zhu Xi and Lu Jiuyuan, he stressed practical learning and applying Confucian doctrine to the fake world problems. This school had important influence on later thinkers from Zhejiang province, including Wang Shouren and Huang
, who were the most important philosophers in the Ming and Qing periods.
After the beginning of the Qing Dynasty and the rise to power of Ruan Dacheng, arrest warrants were issued for descendants of Donglin members, including Huang
. Liang Qichao later speculated that Huang avoided capture by fleeing to Japan during this period, but the evidence consists of only one poem. Huang assisted Ming loyalist forces until his retirement in 1649. Thereafter, Huang devoted himself to study and lived near his native home for much of the rest of his life. He died in 1695, at the age of 84.
described martial arts in terms of Shaolin or "external" arts versus Wudang or "internal" arts in 1669. It has been since then that Shaolin has been popularly synonymous for what are considered the external Chinese martial arts, regardless of whether or not the particular style in question has any connection to the Shaolin Monastery. Some say that there is no differentiation between the so-called internal and external systems of the Chinese martial arts, while other well-known teachers hold the opinion that they are different. For example, the Taijiquan teacher Wu Jianquan:
In later ages, however, emphasis was often placed more on the obligations of the ruled to the ruler, and less on the ruler's obligations to the ruled. Like filial piety, loyalty was often subverted by the autocratic regimes in China. Nonetheless, throughout the ages, many Confucians continued to fight against unrighteous superiors and rulers. Many of these Confucians suffered and sometimes died because of their conviction and action. During the Ming-Qing era, prominent Confucians such as Wang Yangming promoted individuality and independent thinking as a counterweight to subservience to authority. The famous thinker Huang
also strongly criticized the autocratic nature of the imperial system and wanted to keep imperial power in check.
Zhang Dingfan belonged to the circle of General Bai
白崇禧. While the 1911 Revolution overthrew the Qing Empire, it did not unify China which was ruled by regional warlords. The central national government was in the south, home of Sun Yat-Sen. It did not have the military strength to defeat all of the warlords, especially those in the North. The regional forces were constantly shifting allegiances or fighting each other. Bai was from Central China which included Jiangxi, Zhang's home province. Bai eventually joined with Chiang Kai-shek who became head of the Nationalist Government. It was an uneasy alliance of convenience. Nevertheless, Bai's armies were critical in the success of Chiang's two Northern Expeditions forming the left and center of the advances. Zhang was a field general they both depended upon and was rewarded to be the Mayor of Shanghai while remaining in command of the 13th Army in the heart of China.
In contrast, the eight-legged format is "generally considered pedantic and trite by modern-day scholars", and it had its critics during the time of its dominance as well. As early as the 17th century, the form's adoption was blamed for the decline of classical poetry and prose during the Ming Dynasty. The critic Wu Qiao wrote that "people exhausted themselves on the eight-legged essay, and poetry was only composed with their spare energy". Writing at the same time, the political theorist and philosopher Huang
echoed these sentiments. Its use has been criticized as the reason that many successful examination candidates later found themselves unprepared for the more practical requirements of government positions. In his unfinished autobiography, Chen Duxiu, the co-founder of the Chinese Communist Party, called the form "lifeless".
The defeat of the Ming dynasty posed practical and moral problems, especially for literati and officials. Confucian teachings emphasized Loyalty (忠 "zhōng"), but were good Confucians to be loyal to the fallen Ming or to the new power, the Qing? Some, like the painter Bada Shanren, a descendent of the Ming ruling family, became recluses. Others, like Kong Shangren, who claimed to be a descendent of Confucius, joined the new regime. Kong wrote a poignant drama, The Peach Blossom Fan, which explored the moral decay of the Ming in order to explain its fall. Poets whose lives bridged the transition between Ming poetry and Qing poetry are attracting modern academic interest. Some of the most important first generation of Qing thinkers were Ming loyalists, at least in their hearts, including Gu Yanwu, Huang
, and Fang Yizhi. Partly in reaction and to protest the laxity and excess of the late Ming, they turned to evidential learning, which emphasized careful textual study and critical thinking. Another important group in this transitional period were the "Three Masters of Jiangdong" – Gong Dingzi, Wu Weiye, and Qian Qianyi – who among other things contributed to a revival in the "ci" form of poetry.
From a modern historical perspective, when tracing t‘ai-chi ch‘üan's formative influences to Taoist and Buddhist monasteries, there seems little more to go on than legendary tales. Nevertheless, some traditional schools claim that t‘ai-chi ch‘üan has a practical connection to and dependence upon the theories of Song dynasty Neo-Confucianism (a conscious synthesis of Taoist, Buddhist, and Confucian traditions, especially the teachings of Mencius). These schools believe that t‘ai-chi ch‘üan's theories and practice were formulated by the Taoist monk Zhang Sanfeng in the 12th century, at about the same time that the principles of the Neo-Confucian school were making themselves felt in Chinese intellectual life. However, modern research casts serious doubts on the validity of those claims, pointing out that a 17th-century piece called "Epitaph for Wang Zhengnan" (1669), composed by Huang
(A.D. 1610–1695), is the earliest reference indicating any connection between Zhang Sanfeng and martial arts whatsoever, and must not be taken literally but must be understood as a political metaphor instead. Claims of connections between t‘ai-chi ch‘üan and Zhang Sanfeng appeared no earlier than the 19th century.
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