Synonyms for zyban or Related words with zyban
Examples of "zyban"
While most clinically useful TNF inhibitors are monoclonal antibodies, some are simple molecules such as xanthine derivatives (e.g. pentoxifylline) and bupropion. Bupropion is the active ingredient in the smoking cessation aid
and the antidepressants Wellbutrin and Aplenzin.
Medications such as the antidepressant and nicotinic antagonist bupropion (Wellbutrin,
) and the atypical opioid analgesics tramadol (Ultram, Ultram ER, Ultracet) and tapentadol (Nucynta, Palexia, TAPAL) can lower the seizure threshold. So can other factors, including:
Bupropion is marketed under many brand names including Aplenzin (United States), Budeprion (United States), Elontril (Central Europe), Wellbutrin (Americas), Quomem (Thailand), Prexaton (Australia), Voxra (Nordic countries), and
(various regions), among others.
The company was also fined for promoting Wellbutrin (bupropion) – approved at the time for major depressive disorder and also sold as a smoking-cessation aid,
– for weight loss and the treatment of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, sexual dysfunction and substance addiction. GSK paid doctors to promote these off-label uses, and set up supposedly independent advisory boards and Continuing Medical Education programmes.
He has appeared in commercials for
, and toured as the Ringmaster in both the 136th edition of the Ringling Brothers and Barnum & Bailey Circus, "Circus of Dreams" (2006 through 2007), and the 138th edition "Over The Top" (2008 to 2009).
In France, marketing authorization was granted for
on 3 August 2001, with a maximum daily dose of 300 mg; only sustained-release bupropion is available, and only as a smoking cessation aid. Bupropion was granted a licence for use in adults with major depression in the Netherlands in early 2007, with GlaxoSmithKline expecting subsequent approval in other European countries.
Some medications are CYP2D6 inhibitors and reduce or even completely block the conversion of codeine to morphine. The most well-known of these are two of the selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors, paroxetine (Paxil) and fluoxetine (Prozac) as well as the antihistamine diphenhydramine (Benadryl) and the antidepressant, bupropion (Wellbutrin, also known as
). Other drugs, such as rifampicin and dexamethasone, induce CYP450 isozymes and thus increase the conversion rate.
Success in achieving smoking abstinence using current smoking therapies such as Nicotine Anonymous, cognitive-behavioral group therapy, nicotine replacement therapies and bupropion (
) ranges from 9% to 40% in different studies. Alcoholics and drug addicts have better smoking cessation success rates when attempting to quit smoking early in recovery. Combining psychosocial and pharmacological treatments increases smoking cessation success rates. Acupuncture, hypnosis, inpatient treatment, and Nicotine Anonymous have not been shown effective thus far.
In 1996, the FDA approved a sustained-release formulation of bupropion called Wellbutrin SR, intended to be taken twice a day (as compared with three times a day for immediate-release Wellbutrin). In 2003, the FDA approved another sustained-release formulation called Wellbutrin XL, intended for once-daily dosing. Wellbutrin SR and XL are available in generic form in the United States and Canada. In Canada, generic XR bupropion is distributed by Mylan. In 1997, bupropion was approved by the FDA for use as a smoking cessation aid under the name
. In 2006, Wellbutrin XL was similarly approved as a treatment for seasonal affective disorder.
Bupropion is a medication primarily used as an antidepressant and smoking cessation aid. It is marketed as Wellbutrin and
among other trade names. It is one of the most frequently prescribed antidepressants in the United States and Canada, although in many countries this is an off-label use. It is an effective antidepressant on its own, but is also popular as an add-on medication in cases of incomplete response to first-line SSRI antidepressants. Bupropion is taken in tablet form and is available only by prescription in most countries.
His primary research interest is the development of cessation aids for people interested in stopping the use of tobacco. He has conducted pivotal clinical trials with the use of all delivery forms of nicotine available on the US and European markets, including gum, transdermal patches, oral nicotine inhalers, nasal spray, and sublingual tablets. He also conducted pivotal trials with bupropion (
, a monocyclic antidepressant) and varenicline (Chantix, a nicotine receptor and partial agonist) which resulted in both being approved for use in the US. In addition, he has studied the use of lobeline as a nicotine blocker, and various psychoactive substances including anti-depressants and anti-anxiety agents. He has also investigated rimonabant (an endocabinnoid), varenicline (a nicotine receptor partial agonist) and 3′AmNic-rEPA (a nicotine conjugate vaccine).
In the UK, more than 7,600 reports of suspected adverse reactions were collected in the first two years after bupropion's approval by the Medicines and Healthcare Products Regulatory Agency as part of the Yellow Card Scheme, which monitored side effects. Approximately 540,000 people were treated with bupropion for smoking cessation during that period. The MHRA received 60 reports of ""suspected" [emphasis MHRA's] adverse reactions to
which had a fatal outcome". The agency concluded that "in the majority of cases the individual's underlying condition may provide an alternative explanation." This is consistent with a large, 9,300-patient safety study that showed that the mortality of smokers taking bupropion is not higher than the natural mortality of smokers of the same age.
The development and implementation of TMAP was a result of numerous sponsors such as the National Institute of Mental Health, the Robert Wood Johnson Foundation, the Meadows Foundation, the Lightner-Sams Foundation, the Nanny Hogan Boyd Charitable Trust, TDMHMR, the Center for Mental Health Services, the Department of Veterans Affairs, the Health Services Research and Development Research Career Scientist Award, the United States Pharmacopoeia Convention Inc. and Mental Health Connections, Johnson & Johnson, Abbott Laboratories, Astrazeneca, Novartis, Janssen Pharmaceuticals, GlaxoSmithKline, Wyeth-Ayerst, Forest Laboratories, U.S. Pharmacopeia, Bristol-Myers Squibb Company, Eli Lilly and Company, Janssen Pharmaceutica, Novartis International AG, and Pfizer, Inc. Patented mental health drugs promoted by TMAP include: Risperdal, Zyprexa, Seroquel, Geodon, Depakote, Paxil, Zoloft, Celexa, Wellbutrin,
, Remeron, Serzone, Effexor, Buspar, Adderall, and Prozac, all manufactured by the above pharmaceutical companies.
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